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3. Advanced Course

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  1. 1. What is Taproot?
  2. 2. Blockchain bridges – what are they?
  3. 3. What is Ethereum Plasma?
  4. 4. What is Ethereum Casper?
  5. 5. What is Zk-SNARK and Zk-STARK? 
  6. 6. What is Selfish Mining? 
  7. 7. What is spoofing in the cryptocurrency market? 
  8. 8. Schnorr signatures - what are they? 
  9. 9. MimbleWimble - what is it? 
  10. 10. What is digital property rights in NFT?
  11. 11. What are ETFs and what role do they play in the cryptocurrency market? 
  12. 12. How to verify a cryptocurrency project – cryptocurrency tokenomics 
  13. 13. What is the 51% attack on blockchain?
  14. 14. What is DAO, and how does it work?
  15. 15. Zero-knowledge proof – a protocol that respects privacy 
  16. 16. What is EOSREX?
  17. 17. What is Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET)?
  18. 18. Mirror Protocol – what it is? 
  19. 19. What are synthetic assets? 
  20. 20. How to create your own NFT? 
  21. 21. Definition of DeFi, and what are its liquidations?
  22. 22. New identity system - Polygon ID
  23. 23. Ethereum Foundation and the Scroll protocol - what is it?
  24. 24. What is Byzantine fault tolerance in blockchain technology?
  25. 25. Scalability of blockchain technology - what is it?
  26. 26. Interchain Security - new Cosmos (ATOM) protocol
  27. 27. Coin Mixing vs. Coin Join - definition, opportunities, and threats
  28. 28. What is Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and how does it work?
  29. 29. Soulbound Tokens - what are they, and how do they work?
  30. 30. Definition of LIDO - what is it?
  31. 31. What are Threshold Signatures, and how do they work?
  32. 32. Blockchain technology and cyberattacks.
  33. 33. Bitcoin script - what it is, and what you should know about it.
  34. 34. What is zkEVM, and what are its basic features?
  35. 35. Do confidential transactions on blockchain exist? What is a Confidential Transaction?
  36. 36. Algorithmic stablecoins - everything you should know about them.
  37. 37. Polygon Zk Rollups ZKP - what should you know about it?
  38. 38. What is Web3 Infura?
  39. 39. Mantle - Ethereum L2 scalability - how does it work?
  40. 40. What is the NEAR Rainbow Bridge?
  41. 41. Liquid Staking Ethereum and LSD tokens. What do you need to know about it?
  42. 42. Top 10 blockchain oracles. How do they work? How do they differ?
  43. 43. What are Web3.js and Ether.js? What are the main differences between them?
  44. 44. What is StarkWare, and recursive validity proofs
  45. 45. Quant Network: scalability of the future
  46. 46. Polygon zkEVM - everything you need to know
  47. 47. What is Optimism (OP), and how do its roll-ups work?
  48. 48. What are RPC nodes, and how do they work?
  49. 49. SEI Network: everything you need to know about the Tier 1 solution for DeFi
  50. 50. Types of Proof-of-Stake Consensus Mechanisms: DPoS, LPoS and BPoS
  51. 51. Bedrock: the epileptic curve that ensures security!
  52. 52. What is Tendermint, and how does it work?
  53. 53. Pantos: how to solve the problem of token transfer between blockchains?
  54. 54. What is asymmetric encryption?
  55. 55. Base-58 Function in Cryptocurrencies
  56. 56. What Is the Nostr Protocol and How Does It Work?
  57. 57. What Is the XDAI Bridge and How Does It Work?
  58. 58. Solidity vs. Rust: What Are the Differences Between These Programming Languages?
  59. 59. What Is a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)?
  60. 60. What Is the Ethereum Rinkeby Testnet and How Does It Work?
  61. 61. What Is Probabilistic Encryption?
  62. 62. What is a Pinata in Web 3? We explain!
  63. 63. What Is EIP-4337? Will Ethereum Account Abstraction Change Web3 Forever?
  64. 64. What are smart contract audits? Which companies are involved?
  65. 65. How does the AirGapped wallet work?
  66. 66. What is proto-danksharding (EIP-4844) on Ethereum?
  67. 67. What is decentralised storage and how does it work?
  68. 68. How to Recover Cryptocurrencies Sent to the Wrong Address or Network: A Practical Guide
  69. 69. MPC Wallet and Multilateral Computing: Innovative Technology for Privacy and Security
  70. 70. Threshold signature in cryptography: an advanced signing technique!
  71. 71. Vanity address in cryptocurrencies: what is it and what are its characteristics?
  72. 72. Reentrancy Attack on smart contracts: a threat to blockchain security!
  73. 73. Slither: a static analyser for smart contracts!
  74. 74. Sandwich Attack at DeFi: explanation and risks!
  75. 75. Blockchain RPC for Web3: A key technology in the world of decentralized finance!
  76. 76. Re-staking: the benefits of re-posting in staking!
  77. 77. Base: Evolving cryptocurrency transactions with a tier-2 solution from Coinbase
  78. 78. IPFS: A new era of decentralized data storage
  79. 79. Typical vulnerabilities and bridge security in blockchain technology
  80. 80. JumpNet - Ethereum's new sidechain
Lesson 56 of 80
In Progress

56. What Is the Nostr Protocol and How Does It Work?

The Nostr protocol is an open-source, decentralized network protocol used to build various applications: from social media to Bitcoin exchange applications. It serves as a compelling alternative to centralized social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube. Nostr lets users control their shared data and identity, all while providing resistance to censorship.

What Exactly Is the Nostr Protocol?

Nostr stands for “Notes and Other Stuff Transmitted by Relays.” It is an open protocol that aims to create a censorship-resistant global network for data exchange. Its main focus is on improving social networks. Nostr does not rely on a central server. “Authority” over the protocol is held by users of the ecosystem, and it is they who can run the client.

The protocol gives users control over their data and identity. It does not  impose any restrictions on the process of free expression. Clients of the network, when writing and publishing given content, sign it with their private key and send it to other servers. So you can see that this decentralized network uses cryptographic keys in its operation. The Nostr ecosystem is highly scalable and resistant to censorship, making it a great alternative to centralized networks.

The network is not based on a peer-to-peer model; instead, each user in this ecosystem runs a client locally and publishes messages to Nostr relays. Subscribers to these relays are then notified of the messages. Users have the option to connect to additional relays for broader connectivity.

What Is the Idea Behind the Nostr Protocol?

At its core, the Nostr protocol aims to address the prevalent issue of censorship on mainstream social media platforms. While social media plays a vital role in our daily lives, it often exercises the power to censor the content we share, limiting our freedom of expression and self-expression. Nostr seeks to solve this problem by enabling us to freely share our thoughts and ideas with others.

Without the Nostr protocol, the issue of censorship in social media will persist.

Interestingly, within the Nostr protocol, users have the ability to block others (!), but only on specific relays. This means that while a user may be blocked on one relay, they can still publish content on other relays, maintaining their identity and follower base. Nostr simplifies the process of discovering new relays for its users by recommending them, facilitating seamless connectivity.

It’s important to note that Nostr is a distinct and separate protocol, unrelated to cryptocurrencies or layer two solutions. It does not possess its own blockchain or native token, nor does it facilitate value transfers through its network. Rather, Nostr serves as a tool for users to transmit their data and engage in communication with others.

How Can You Use Nostr?

You simply need to use one of its clients to access the network. We will now briefly walk you through the process.

  1. To start with, you need to create a private or public key pair using the Nostr client. This can be or The first option creates the keys automatically. The second option starts by politely asking if you want to create such a key pair, and then does it for you. Such keys are called “self-sovereign” identities in the Nostr ecosystem. To easily manage keys created this way, you can install a web wallet that has these features. For example the Alba wallet, which has native support for Nostr commands.
  2. As with a Bitcoin seed, it is important to save the generated keys and refrain from sharing them with others.
  3. If you happen to lose your private key, you can generate a new one. If you have a tendency to misplace or forget things, it is advisable to create multiple keys (for added security). However, keep in mind that you can use the same key across all Nostr clients.
  4. To update your profile, access the client you are using and navigate to the option that allows you to complete your profile. Provide a name for yourself, insert a photo or even add a description.
  5. Once your profile is generated, you will see other people’s posts. The client will provide you with the option to create your own posts or follow other users, depending on the features supported. For example, the follow function may not be available in clients like
  6. Depending on your chosen client, you can now search for users and make new friends in a world without censorship!

The Creator of Nostr

The author of the project is @fiatjaf. The idea itself appeared in late 2020. The beta version of the protocol was launched on December 27, 2020. From the very beginning, Nostr gained support from the developer community on Github. What’s more, Nostr received financial support from Jack Dorsey himself, the founder of Twitter. He donated 14 BTC for the development of the protocol and posted the hashtag #nostr on his profile.

His tweet was powerful. After the mention of Nostr, the project’s Telegram channel saw an influx of new members. The community within this decentralized platform is highly active and eager to discuss various proposals for project development.

Not only Nostr!

Nostr is not the sole decentralized protocol aiming to combat censorship. Several competing projects, including the AT protocol, Mastodon, and Matrix, are in the fray. As criticism of centralized social media intensifies, the demand for such protocols is bound to rise.

Nostr, however, might serve as the bedrock of this movement. It’s important to note that such decentralized protocols are not meant to supplant centralized social media platforms. Rather, they aim to empower us with control over our data and privacy, demonstrating a different way of doing things!


The Nostr protocol is constantly evolving and is open to proposals for innovation by its users. However, it is important to acknowledge that its journey is driven by a noble purpose.The fight against censorship is extremely difficult, with its fair share of advantages and disadvantages. We look forward to the continued development of this protocol!