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3. Advanced Course

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  1. 1. What is Taproot?
  2. 2. Blockchain bridges – what are they?
  3. 3. What is Ethereum Plasma?
  4. 4. What is Ethereum Casper?
  5. 5. What is Zk-SNARK and Zk-STARK? 
  6. 6. What is Selfish Mining? 
  7. 7. What is spoofing in the cryptocurrency market? 
  8. 8. Schnorr signatures - what are they? 
  9. 9. MimbleWimble - what is it? 
  10. 10. What is digital property rights in NFT?
  11. 11. What are ETFs and what role do they play in the cryptocurrency market? 
  12. 12. How to verify a cryptocurrency project – cryptocurrency tokenomics 
  13. 13. What is the 51% attack on blockchain?
  14. 14. What is DAO, and how does it work?
  15. 15. Zero-knowledge proof – a protocol that respects privacy 
  16. 16. What is EOSREX?
  17. 17. What is Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET)?
  18. 18. Mirror Protocol – what it is? 
  19. 19. What are synthetic assets? 
  20. 20. How to create your own NFT? 
  21. 21. Definition of DeFi, and what are its liquidations?
  22. 22. New identity system - Polygon ID
  23. 23. Ethereum Foundation and the Scroll protocol - what is it?
  24. 24. What is Byzantine fault tolerance in blockchain technology?
  25. 25. Scalability of blockchain technology - what is it?
  26. 26. Interchain Security - new Cosmos (ATOM) protocol
  27. 27. Coin Mixing vs. Coin Join - definition, opportunities, and threats
  28. 28. What is Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and how does it work?
  29. 29. Soulbound Tokens - what are they, and how do they work?
  30. 30. Definition of LIDO - what is it?
  31. 31. What are Threshold Signatures, and how do they work?
  32. 32. Blockchain technology and cyberattacks.
  33. 33. Bitcoin script - what it is, and what you should know about it.
  34. 34. What is zkEVM, and what are its basic features?
  35. 35. Do confidential transactions on blockchain exist? What is a Confidential Transaction?
  36. 36. Algorithmic stablecoins - everything you should know about them.
  37. 37. Polygon Zk Rollups ZKP - what should you know about it?
  38. 38. What is Web3 Infura?
  39. 39. Mantle - Ethereum L2 scalability - how does it work?
  40. 40. What is the NEAR Rainbow Bridge?
  41. 41. Liquid Staking Ethereum and LSD tokens. What do you need to know about it?
  42. 42. Top 10 blockchain oracles. How do they work? How do they differ?
  43. 43. What are Web3.js and Ether.js? What are the main differences between them?
  44. 44. What is StarkWare, and recursive validity proofs
  45. 45. Quant Network: scalability of the future
  46. 46. Polygon zkEVM - everything you need to know
  47. 47. What is Optimism (OP), and how do its roll-ups work?
  48. 48. What are RPC nodes, and how do they work?
  49. 49. SEI Network: everything you need to know about the Tier 1 solution for DeFi
  50. 50. Types of Proof-of-Stake Consensus Mechanisms: DPoS, LPoS and BPoS
  51. 51. Bedrock: the epileptic curve that ensures security!
  52. 52. What is Tendermint, and how does it work?
  53. 53. Pantos: how to solve the problem of token transfer between blockchains?
  54. 54. What is asymmetric encryption?
  55. 55. Base-58 Function in Cryptocurrencies
  56. 56. What Is the Nostr Protocol and How Does It Work?
  57. 57. What Is the XDAI Bridge and How Does It Work?
  58. 58. Solidity vs. Rust: What Are the Differences Between These Programming Languages?
  59. 59. What Is a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)?
  60. 60. What Is the Ethereum Rinkeby Testnet and How Does It Work?
  61. 61. What Is Probabilistic Encryption?
  62. 62. What is a Pinata in Web 3? We explain!
  63. 63. What Is EIP-4337? Will Ethereum Account Abstraction Change Web3 Forever?
  64. 64. What are smart contract audits? Which companies are involved?
  65. 65. How does the AirGapped wallet work?
  66. 66. What is proto-danksharding (EIP-4844) on Ethereum?
  67. 67. What is decentralised storage and how does it work?
  68. 68. How to Recover Cryptocurrencies Sent to the Wrong Address or Network: A Practical Guide
  69. 69. MPC Wallet and Multilateral Computing: Innovative Technology for Privacy and Security
  70. 70. Threshold signature in cryptography: an advanced signing technique!
  71. 71. Vanity address in cryptocurrencies: what is it and what are its characteristics?
  72. 72. Reentrancy Attack on smart contracts: a threat to blockchain security!
  73. 73. Slither: a static analyser for smart contracts!
  74. 74. Sandwich Attack at DeFi: explanation and risks!
  75. 75. Blockchain RPC for Web3: A key technology in the world of decentralized finance!
  76. 76. Re-staking: the benefits of re-posting in staking!
  77. 77. Base: Evolving cryptocurrency transactions with a tier-2 solution from Coinbase
  78. 78. IPFS: A new era of decentralized data storage
  79. 79. Typical vulnerabilities and bridge security in blockchain technology
Lesson 50 of 79
In Progress

50. Types of Proof-of-Stake Consensus Mechanisms: DPoS, LPoS and BPoS

You have surely heard of the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus more than once. It is one of the most popular algorithms used by blockchain networks. Understanding how it works and what makes it different will make it easier for you to understand how the blockchain you are using works. There are different types of PoS, but they all have a similar concept. In today’s lesson, we will discuss what PoS is and introduce you to the main variants: DPoS, LPoS and BPoS


It was first described by Sunny King and Scott Nadal in 2012. It assumes that the more coins a miner owns, the more mining power he has. This reduces the computational effort required to verify blocks and transactions.

The miners, as owners of the coins, offer them as collateral for the possibility of verification. In crypto language, they are called validators. The validators are chosen at random and their job is to mine or validate the block.

PoS randomly selects who will extract the block. It is not based on a competition like the proof-of-work algorithm. Proof-of-Stake helps blockchains to synchronize data, verify information and process transactions. It is very effective and helpful in managing blockchains.

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS).

It works very much like the PoS consensus. The difference is that it uses a voting and delegation mechanism that encourages users to secure networks in the form of rates.

How it works. Users spend their coins online to vote for different delegates. Those who are elected make the most important decisions that apply to the entire ecosystem. They can even set the rules of a particular protocol or approve transactions.

DPoS is the most efficient consensus mechanism. It ensures the durability and scalability of the blockchain while eliminating the need for the mining process. Therefore, it does not consume as much energy as, for example, proof-of-work.

Interesting fact: Delegates are very often called block producers or block witnesses.

Advantages of DPoS

  • The “delegated” voting system is fast.
  • The parallelism achieved by DPoS provides high performance and scalability
  • It reduces the cost of maintaining network security.
  • It optimizes the use of network resources, such as bandwidth and CPU.

Disadvantages of DPoS

  • Its success requires the participation and coordination of a truly interested community for effective governance.
  • DPoS exposes the blockchain to problems with the voting system
  • Some critics of the DPoS model claim that the protocol promotes centralization.

Liquid Proof of Stake (LPoS)

LPoS sounds very similar to the DPoS consensus in its description. As a cryptocurrency holder, with the LPoS consensus, you lend your validation rights to other users without having to give up ownership of your assets. It is up to you to decide who you transfer ownership to or who you entrust with your cryptocurrency. It is important to note that the number of active validation nodes in the LPoS consensus is very dynamic, and the validators are not fixed. For example, if you have many assets, you can become a block validator without needing outside approval. Users with fewer assets can support you or form a profitable coalition with you. And thanks to the fact that in LPoS the number of active nodes is dynamic, it is impossible for the majority to take over the network.

Bonded Proof-of-Stake (BPoS).

You will probably not be surprised when we say that the BPoS is similar to the LPoS. Again, delegation is not mandatory and the holders of more assets have a say in the protocol. There is only a basic framework. In the event of a security or liveness failure, a certain portion of the validators’ and delegates’ income is cut off for the network. Despite this drawback, this type of consensus eliminates the share factor present in LPoS. Projects that have implemented this algorithm include Cosmos and IRIS net.


PoS consensus mechanisms will continue to change, and their number will grow steadily. This is because the developers of ecosystems based on the blockchain will combine them to manage the chain even more efficiently.

The consensus and working algorithms described will certainly expand your horizons. Every project based on the Blockchain implements some form of proof-of-stake consensus mechanism. Everything is geared towards streamlining the processes.