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3. Advanced Course

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  1. 1. What is Taproot?
  2. 2. Blockchain bridges – what are they?
  3. 3. What is Ethereum Plasma?
  4. 4. What is Ethereum Casper?
  5. 5. What is Zk-SNARK and Zk-STARK? 
  6. 6. What is Selfish Mining? 
  7. 7. What is spoofing in the cryptocurrency market? 
  8. 8. Schnorr signatures - what are they? 
  9. 9. MimbleWimble - what is it? 
  10. 10. What is digital property rights in NFT?
  11. 11. What are ETFs and what role do they play in the cryptocurrency market? 
  12. 12. How to verify a cryptocurrency project – cryptocurrency tokenomics 
  13. 13. What is the 51% attack on blockchain?
  14. 14. What is DAO, and how does it work?
  15. 15. Zero-knowledge proof – a protocol that respects privacy 
  16. 16. What is EOSREX?
  17. 17. What is Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET)?
  18. 18. Mirror Protocol – what it is? 
  19. 19. What are synthetic assets? 
  20. 20. How to create your own NFT? 
  21. 21. Definition of DeFi, and what are its liquidations?
  22. 22. New identity system - Polygon ID
  23. 23. Ethereum Foundation and the Scroll protocol - what is it?
  24. 24. What is Byzantine fault tolerance in blockchain technology?
  25. 25. Scalability of blockchain technology - what is it?
  26. 26. Interchain Security - new Cosmos (ATOM) protocol
  27. 27. Coin Mixing vs. Coin Join - definition, opportunities, and threats
  28. 28. What is Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and how does it work?
  29. 29. Soulbound Tokens - what are they, and how do they work?
  30. 30. Definition of LIDO - what is it?
  31. 31. What are Threshold Signatures, and how do they work?
  32. 32. Blockchain technology and cyberattacks.
  33. 33. Bitcoin script - what it is, and what you should know about it.
  34. 34. What is zkEVM, and what are its basic features?
  35. 35. Do confidential transactions on blockchain exist? What is a Confidential Transaction?
  36. 36. Algorithmic stablecoins - everything you should know about them.
  37. 37. Polygon Zk Rollups ZKP - what should you know about it?
  38. 38. What is Web3 Infura?
  39. 39. Mantle - Ethereum L2 scalability - how does it work?
  40. 40. What is the NEAR Rainbow Bridge?
  41. 41. Liquid Staking Ethereum and LSD tokens. What do you need to know about it?
  42. 42. Top 10 blockchain oracles. How do they work? How do they differ?
  43. 43. What are Web3.js and Ether.js? What are the main differences between them?
  44. 44. What is StarkWare, and recursive validity proofs
  45. 45. Quant Network: scalability of the future
  46. 46. Polygon zkEVM - everything you need to know
  47. 47. What is Optimism (OP), and how do its roll-ups work?
  48. 48. What are RPC nodes, and how do they work?
  49. 49. SEI Network: everything you need to know about the Tier 1 solution for DeFi
  50. 50. Types of Proof-of-Stake Consensus Mechanisms: DPoS, LPoS and BPoS
  51. 51. Bedrock: the epileptic curve that ensures security!
  52. 52. What is Tendermint, and how does it work?
  53. 53. Pantos: how to solve the problem of token transfer between blockchains?
  54. 54. What is asymmetric encryption?
  55. 55. Base-58 Function in Cryptocurrencies
  56. 56. What Is the Nostr Protocol and How Does It Work?
  57. 57. What Is the XDAI Bridge and How Does It Work?
  58. 58. Solidity vs. Rust: What Are the Differences Between These Programming Languages?
  59. 59. What Is a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)?
  60. 60. What Is the Ethereum Rinkeby Testnet and How Does It Work?
  61. 61. What Is Probabilistic Encryption?
  62. 62. What is a Pinata in Web 3? We explain!
  63. 63. What Is EIP-4337? Will Ethereum Account Abstraction Change Web3 Forever?
  64. 64. What are smart contract audits? Which companies are involved?
  65. 65. How does the AirGapped wallet work?
  66. 66. What is proto-danksharding (EIP-4844) on Ethereum?
  67. 67. What is decentralised storage and how does it work?
  68. 68. How to Recover Cryptocurrencies Sent to the Wrong Address or Network: A Practical Guide
  69. 69. MPC Wallet and Multilateral Computing: Innovative Technology for Privacy and Security
  70. 70. Threshold signature in cryptography: an advanced signing technique!
  71. 71. Vanity address in cryptocurrencies: what is it and what are its characteristics?
  72. 72. Reentrancy Attack on smart contracts: a threat to blockchain security!
  73. 73. Slither: a static analyser for smart contracts!
  74. 74. Sandwich Attack at DeFi: explanation and risks!
  75. 75. Blockchain RPC for Web3: A key technology in the world of decentralized finance!
  76. 76. Re-staking: the benefits of re-posting in staking!
  77. 77. Base: Evolving cryptocurrency transactions with a tier-2 solution from Coinbase
  78. 78. IPFS: A new era of decentralized data storage
  79. 79. Typical vulnerabilities and bridge security in blockchain technology
  80. 80. JumpNet - Ethereum's new sidechain
Lesson 53 of 80
In Progress

53. Pantos: how to solve the problem of token transfer between blockchains?

Pantos is an open-source project that solves the problem of interoperability between blockchains. As we know, most blockchains do not work together. They are not connected to each other and cannot cooperate. Pantos was founded to solve these problems. It aims to drive innovative solutions in cross-blockchain interoperability.

Today’s lesson will focus on this solution. We will discuss how it works and look at its advantages and disadvantages.

What is Pantos?

Pantos Digital Asset Standard (PANDAS) is the official name of the protocol. Pantos is an innovative solution designed to overcome the limitations of the ERC-20 token standard, in particular its lack of compatibility with multichain networks.

The ERC-20 standard is very widely used, especially on the Ethereum network. However, its single-chain formulation presents a number of challenges, particularly the transfer of assets between different networks. Currently, users deposit their ERC-20 tokens with CEX to transfer them to another chain. This is problematic and time-consuming. Blockchain bridges fail just as often.

Pantos is supposed to be a breakthrough in this regard. It creates a native multichain standard that focuses on the strengths of the ERC-20 standard and overcomes its limitations. The result? PANDAS a near-universal standard for digital assets that supports multiple chains, including Ethereum, BNB Chain, Avalanche, Cronos, Polygon, Celo and Phantom.

PANDAS – what exactly is this?

The basis of PANDAS is precisely the Pantos protocol. It is based on smart contracts, which in fact enable seamless transactions between chains. This solution ensures the security of digital assets. Moreover, they are efficiently transferred between supported networks without the need for intermediaries or centralized exchanges.

Let us now take a look at the structure of PANDAS.

Pantos Hub

The Pantos HUB is nothing more than a smart contract implemented on multiple blockchains. It enables cross-chain functionality for tokens based on the Pantos Digital Asset (PANDAS) standard.

The hub facilitates cross-chain transfers so that tokens can be moved seamlessly between different blockchains and retain value. By creating such token contracts, developers provide users with the ability to interact with tokens across different blockchains. In this way, they increase the usability of the token and encourage wider adoption.

Pantos Forwarder

This is also a smart contract. It acts as an intermediary between the Pantos Hub and token contracts that implement the IPantosToken interface. The forwarder is responsible for handling token transfers between chains. It ensures that the ownership and value of the token is preserved during the transfer. The Pantos Forwarder is in constant communication with the Pantos Hub. It coordinates the process of transferring tokens from one blockchain to another.

Importantly, token contracts must specify the Pantos Forwarder address in their code to enable cross-chain functionality.

IPantosToken interface

This is a set of standard functions that token contracts must implement to be fully compliant with the Pantos Digital Asset (PANDAS) standard. The interface ensures compatibility with various other blockchain ecosystems. It also defines additional functions and events tailored to cross-chain functionality (pantosTransfer, pantosTransferFrom, pantosTransferTo, getPantosForwarder). With the implementation of this interface, token contracts can use the cross-chain functionality of the Pantos Hub.


This is a base token contract that implements the IPantosToken interface. It provides the basis for creating custom tokens, which, of course, comply with the Pantos Digital Asset (PANDAS) standard.

The base contract provides the necessary functions and events for cross-chain functionality. It thus simplifies the entire process of creating new tokens. How it works. Developers can inherit from PantosBaseToken and extend it with their own logic. They then create a new token that is compatible with Pantos Hub and that can be transferred seamlessly between different blockchains.

Pantos Token (PAN)

This is the native token of the Pantos network. PAN currently exists as an ERC-20 token on the Ethereum blockchain. However, once Pantos is launched on the mainnet, PAN will support multiple blockchain networks.

The number of tokens is set at 1,000,000,000. PAN is used to manage the protocol and is a way to pay for the fees associated with using the Pantos network.


PANDAS is a major step forward in the world of digital asset management. It offers a very powerful alternative to the well-known ERC-20 standard. It offers users support for multiple chains with seamless transactions between them. The protocol has great potential to revolutionize the way digital assets are created, managed and exchanged.