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2. Intermediate Course

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  1. 1. What is Layer 0 in Blockchain technology?
  2. 2. What is layer 1 in Blockchain?
  3. 3. Second layer (layer 2) - what is it? 
  4. 4. Blockchain and its layers - What is layer three in Blockchain (L3)?
  5. 5. Ethereum 2.0 - What is it? 
  6. 6. Ethereum Proof-of-Stake (PoS) - what should you know?
  7. 7. Ethereum London Hard Fork - what is it ? 
  8. 8. What is the Ethereum Name Service (ENS) and how does it work?
  9. 9. Arbitrum: Ethereum scaling solution - everything you need to know
  10. 10. Polygon 2.0 - the value layer for the Internet
  11. 11. Ethereum ERC-4337 - what is it and how does this standard work?
  12. 12. What is an ERC20 token and how is it created?
  13. 13. The ERC-721X VS ERC-721 Standard – Key Differences!
  14. 14. What is cryptocurrency burning?
  15. 15. Examples of the use of WEB3 on the blockchain
  16. 16. What is Web5? 
  17. 17. Blockchain Oracle - what are oracles? 
  18. 18. Polkadot - Decentralized blockchain and DOT cryptocurrency
  19. 19. Polkadot Parachain - Next-generation blockchain
  20. 20. Interoperability in the world of cryptocurrencies and blockchain
  21. 21. What is Blockchain sharding?
  22. 22. Mainnet versus Testnet on the Blockchain. The complete guide!
  23. 23. MINA Protocol: the lightest blockchain in the world!
  24. 24. Sustainable Blockchain - Proof of Useful Work & Flux
  25. 25. Cosmos SDK: Building the Blockchain Ecosystem
  26. 26. What is cross-chain interoperability in Blockchain technology?
  27. 27. Blockchain trilemma - explanation of the problem. What is the impact on cryptocurrency payments?
  28. 28. Non-fungible tokens and NFT exchanges
  29. 29. How to make money with NFT?
  30. 30. What is the NFT licence fee?
  31. 31. NFT Gas Fee - what is it? How can you reduce your gas fee?
  32. 32. The main differences between static NFT and dynamic NFT
  33. 33. What is minting an NFT?
  34. 34. What are NFT Ordinals? A guide to Bitcoin NFT.
  35. 35. What is KnowOrigin NFT, and how does it work?
  36. 36. ERC-6551 - the new NFT standard. What does it bring to the non-exchangeable token sector?
  37. 37. What is NFT Lending all about? An innovative solution in the world of cryptocurrencies!
  38. 38. The Metaverse – a new virtual world
  39. 39. Metaverse – TOP 15 virtual reality projects
  40. 40. Technical analysis – is it worth using?
  41. 41. Trading order types: stop loss, trailing stop loss, LIMIT
  42. 42. Market Cap versus Fully Diluted Market Cap - the most important differences you should know!
  43. 43. Set up of Stop Loss and Take Profit orders
  44. 44. What are DeFi liquidity pools?
  45. 45. Real Yield in DeFi - what is this trend? What does it consist of?
  46. 46. Vampire Attacks in Decentralized Finance (DeFi): Explanation and Examples
  47. 47. What are wrapped tokens 
  48. 48. What are security tokens?
  49. 49. What are Social Tokens? 
  50. 50. Liquidity Provider Tokens (LPs). What are they, and why are they so important?
  51. 51. What is the Lightning Network, and how does it work?
  52. 52. What is Play-to-Earn (P2E) and how does it work?
  53. 53. Cryptocurrency steps - What is move to earn M2E?
  54. 54. Segregated Witness - what is Segwit Bitcoin all about?
  55. 55. What are Decentralized Cryptocurrency DEX Exchanges?
  56. 56. What is Curve Finance?
  57. 57. What is GameFi and how does it work?
  58. 58. What is Proof of Reserves (PoR)? How does it work?
  59. 59. DAO Investment: A revolution in the world of finance and investment
  60. 60. What is MakerDAO and DAI Stablecoin?
  61. 61. What is the SubDAO protocol, and how does it work?
  62. 62. How to Create Your Own Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)?
  63. 63. Atomic Swap: What is an atomic swap, and how does it work with cryptocurrencies?
  64. 64. What Is Cryptocurrency Vesting? What Are Its Advantages?
  65. 65. What Is the Metaplex Candy Machine Protocol? How Does It Work?
  66. 66. What Is the BNB Greenfield Ecosystem?
  67. 67. What Is Slashing in Cryptocurrencies?
  68. 68. Royalties – What Are They? How Does This Type of Licensing Fee Work?
  69. 69. What is TradFi? The importance for cryptocurrencies!
  70. 70. What is the Real World Asset (RWA) trend in cryptocurrencies? Explanation and examples!
  71. 71. Pyth Network: a powerful oracle harnessing the power of Solana!
  72. 72. What are stables in the world of cryptocurrencies?
  73. 73. What Is Binance Oracle?
  74. 74. Shibarium: A new era in the Shiba Inu ecosystem?
  75. 75. What is an ETF? How will an exchange-traded fund on bitcoin work?
  76. 76. Symmetric and asymmetric encryption - key cryptography techniques!
  77. 77. Hedging in cryptocurrencies - great portfolio protection against risk!
  78. 78. How to create your own cryptocurrency? 
  79. 79. What is a Dusting Attack in cryptocurrencies? How to protect against it?
  80. 80. What is a Black Swan?
Lesson 24 of 80
In Progress

24. Sustainable Blockchain – Proof of Useful Work & Flux

Some time ago, Flux announced its work on Proof of Useful Work (PoUW).

Since then, the platform has been working hard to make it a reality. The impact of PoUW on cryptocurrencies, but also on traditional industries, will be huge! This is one of the biggest projects Flux is working on. PoUW has the potential to change the way we look at Proof-of-Work blockchains. It will also help solve sustainability issues that are taboo among blockchain critics.

So, what is the Flux ecosystem? What are the characteristics of Proof of Useful Work? We invite you to read on!

The Flux Ecosystem

Flux (FLUX) is a cloud-based decentralized computing network. It is designed to develop and deploy scalable, cross-platform blockchain applications. The entire ecosystem is based on Flux’s own chain and runs on seven other chains.

The nodes on the Flux master chain make their computing resources available to the ecosystem and receive rewards in the form of cryptocurrencies in return. The resources are used by dApps throughout the ecosystem. With a broad network of nodes, Flux can offer dApps developers with a highly sophisticated and scalable platform.

The Flux platform itself is based on the BaaS concept. It provides computing resources and blockchain infrastructure in the cloud. This gives Flux greater security and decentralization, which is directly integrated with blockchain technology.

The platform itself is connected to other blockchains via parallel assets. These are native tokens for other blockchains that are also part of the Flux ecosystem.

The whole ecosystem is primarily for developers to create scalable and compatible dApps with other blockchains. Currently, there are many dApps running and being built in the Flux ecosystem. This group includes:

  • Yearn Finance (YFI).
  • Aave (AAVE).
  • Minecraft’s servers.

How does the Flux ecosystem work?

Block validation

Flux is a fork of Bitcoin by ZCash. Block validation is based on Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus. What it means. That some nodes in the network act as miners to validate transactions.

Also, Flux implements a Proof-of-Work (PoUW) that optimizes PoW. We will get into the details of PoUW shortly.

In addition, the mining algorithm of FLUX, ZelHash, is resistant to ASIC mining. As a result, it consumes less energy.


As mentioned in the paragraph above, Flux acts as a cloud-based infrastructure provider with seven other chains. 

These chains are: Ethereum (ETH), BNB Chain (BNB), Kadena (KDA), Solana (SOL), Tron (TRX), Avalanche (AVAX) and Ergo (ERG).

By supporting so many chains, dApps built on the Flux platform have a high degree of interoperability between chains. This interoperability is achieved through FluxOS, a cloud-based operating system that connects all the platforms supported by Flux. In addition to FluxOS, there are three other important elements in its architecture: nodes, mining nodes and parallel resources.


FluxNodes power the network nodes of FluxOS. They represent the users who provide computing resources to the network, which are used by the dApps. In exchange for the resources, the nodes are rewarded with FLUX cryptocurrencies.

The overall scalability and performance of the system depends on these nodes. Flux nodes can run on a Virtual Private Server (VPS), a home computer, a server or an ARM processor.

Mining nodes

They validate the blocks for the Flux blockchain. It is important to remember that Flux has a lower mining difficulty compared to Bitcoin or even Dogecoin.

The mining time for a Flux block is only two minutes, compared to Bitcoin’s 10-minute mining frequency. Each reward for a block on Flux is 75 FLUX. This is split 50/50 between miners and operating nodes.

In addition to the FLUX rewards, miners can earn additional rewards in the form of parallel tokens as well as bonuses from Titan claim transactions (this is a shared Flux node program).

FLUX token – what is it and what role does it play?

FLUX is the native cryptocurrency of the Flux ecosystem. It has several use cases. Interestingly, we need to use Zelcore to own FLUX and perform important operations such as staking.

FLUX is also a cryptocurrency that is paid out as rewards to miners. It is also used to run nodes and as a token for ecosystem management. The holders of FLUX are involved in the decision-making process regarding changes and development of the platform. Interestingly, the platform is managed by XDAO, a decentralized entity controlled by the holders of the FLUX token.

It is also interesting that FLUX can be used for staking on the platform. To participate in staking, you need to invest at least 50 FLUX and the cap on the amount that can be staked by a node is 20,000 FLUX.

The token itself has a limited supply, set at 440 million.

What is Proof-of-Work (PoW)?

As you know, Proof-of-Work (PoW) is when a chain is backed by miners who perform complex calculations to obtain a reward. These calculations are useful for the blockchain, but they serve no purpose in the real world. That is why they are so often criticized.

Proof of Useful Work (PoUW) solves this problem. Flux wants to transfer the enormous computing power that PoW miners use into the real world to solve relevant problems. Areas where PoUW can be used for efficiency and effectiveness include:

  1. Research

As the world grows, more and more research problems require massive computing power to solve puzzles. PoUW can bring computing power to this area and help researchers do their work. PoUW can also be helpful in providing computing power for tracking climate conditions and weather forecasting.

  1. Deepfake

Thanks to AI algorithms, we can create clips with altered faces and even voices. This poses some dangers. Deepfake detection is a taboo subject and needs to be taken seriously. Proof of useful work provides access to the resources necessary to study, detect and, most importantly, distinguish deepfakes from real faces and voices.

  1. Rendering in computer graphics

Rendering is the process by which a computer builds up a given image pixel by pixel. Complex designs even require the application of special effects. This requires an enormous amount of computing power, which often slows down the whole process. With PoUW, we draw power from a pool of available GPU miners. And the result? Faster rendering!

  1. Machine learning

Training ML algorithms (reinforcement learning or computer vision) relies on large data sets and high GPU power. On a personal computer, this can be very slow and often even impossible. With PoUW, researchers get access to resources that are on miner hardware.

So, you can see that these are problems we face every day. They can be solved faster, cheaper and more efficiently with PoUW.

Flux and its approach to PoUW

Flux has a very flexible approach to PoUW. It goes beyond its ecosystem. The platform allows virtually anyone with the right infrastructure and hardware to make their devices available to work on difficulties that require a lot of computing power.

This includes miners, gamers with the right graphics cards, or large organizations with unused computing resources.


Flux is a rare project indeed. So far unheard of in the cryptocurrency sector. It offers a scalable solution that is available in the cloud. It has great features, including cross-platform compatibility or scalable leasing of computing power based on PoUW.

In the blockchain world, Flux is one of the most promising projects.

Complete your knowledge!

What is blockchain, and how does it work? [BASIC LEVEL]

Is blockchain secure? [BASIC LEVEL]

What is a decentralized dApp? [BASELINE]

What is Proof-of-Work (PoW) and what is Proof-of-Stake (PoS)? [ENTRY LEVEL].