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3. Advanced Course

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  1. 1. What is Taproot?
  2. 2. Blockchain bridges – what are they?
  3. 3. What is Ethereum Plasma?
  4. 4. What is Ethereum Casper?
  5. 5. What is Zk-SNARK and Zk-STARK? 
  6. 6. What is Selfish Mining? 
  7. 7. What is spoofing in the cryptocurrency market? 
  8. 8. Schnorr signatures - what are they? 
  9. 9. MimbleWimble - what is it? 
  10. 10. What is digital property rights in NFT?
  11. 11. What are ETFs and what role do they play in the cryptocurrency market? 
  12. 12. How to verify a cryptocurrency project – cryptocurrency tokenomics 
  13. 13. What is the 51% attack on blockchain?
  14. 14. What is DAO, and how does it work?
  15. 15. Zero-knowledge proof – a protocol that respects privacy 
  16. 16. What is EOSREX?
  17. 17. What is Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET)?
  18. 18. Mirror Protocol – what it is? 
  19. 19. What are synthetic assets? 
  20. 20. How to create your own NFT? 
  21. 21. Definition of DeFi, and what are its liquidations?
  22. 22. New identity system - Polygon ID
  23. 23. Ethereum Foundation and the Scroll protocol - what is it?
  24. 24. What is Byzantine fault tolerance in blockchain technology?
  25. 25. Scalability of blockchain technology - what is it?
  26. 26. Interchain Security - new Cosmos (ATOM) protocol
  27. 27. Coin Mixing vs. Coin Join - definition, opportunities, and threats
  28. 28. What is Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and how does it work?
  29. 29. Soulbound Tokens - what are they, and how do they work?
  30. 30. Definition of LIDO - what is it?
  31. 31. What are Threshold Signatures, and how do they work?
  32. 32. Blockchain technology and cyberattacks.
  33. 33. Bitcoin script - what it is, and what you should know about it.
  34. 34. What is zkEVM, and what are its basic features?
  35. 35. Do confidential transactions on blockchain exist? What is a Confidential Transaction?
  36. 36. Algorithmic stablecoins - everything you should know about them.
  37. 37. Polygon Zk Rollups ZKP - what should you know about it?
  38. 38. What is Web3 Infura?
  39. 39. Mantle - Ethereum L2 scalability - how does it work?
  40. 40. What is the NEAR Rainbow Bridge?
  41. 41. Liquid Staking Ethereum and LSD tokens. What do you need to know about it?
  42. 42. Top 10 blockchain oracles. How do they work? How do they differ?
  43. 43. What are Web3.js and Ether.js? What are the main differences between them?
  44. 44. What is StarkWare, and recursive validity proofs
  45. 45. Quant Network: scalability of the future
  46. 46. Polygon zkEVM - everything you need to know
  47. 47. What is Optimism (OP), and how do its roll-ups work?
  48. 48. What are RPC nodes, and how do they work?
  49. 49. SEI Network: everything you need to know about the Tier 1 solution for DeFi
  50. 50. Types of Proof-of-Stake Consensus Mechanisms: DPoS, LPoS and BPoS
  51. 51. Bedrock: the epileptic curve that ensures security!
  52. 52. What is Tendermint, and how does it work?
  53. 53. Pantos: how to solve the problem of token transfer between blockchains?
  54. 54. What is asymmetric encryption?
  55. 55. Base-58 Function in Cryptocurrencies
  56. 56. What Is the Nostr Protocol and How Does It Work?
  57. 57. What Is the XDAI Bridge and How Does It Work?
  58. 58. Solidity vs. Rust: What Are the Differences Between These Programming Languages?
  59. 59. What Is a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)?
  60. 60. What Is the Ethereum Rinkeby Testnet and How Does It Work?
  61. 61. What Is Probabilistic Encryption?
  62. 62. What is a Pinata in Web 3? We explain!
  63. 63. What Is EIP-4337? Will Ethereum Account Abstraction Change Web3 Forever?
  64. 64. What are smart contract audits? Which companies are involved?
  65. 65. How does the AirGapped wallet work?
  66. 66. What is proto-danksharding (EIP-4844) on Ethereum?
  67. 67. What is decentralised storage and how does it work?
  68. 68. How to Recover Cryptocurrencies Sent to the Wrong Address or Network: A Practical Guide
  69. 69. MPC Wallet and Multilateral Computing: Innovative Technology for Privacy and Security
  70. 70. Threshold signature in cryptography: an advanced signing technique!
  71. 71. Vanity address in cryptocurrencies: what is it and what are its characteristics?
  72. 72. Reentrancy Attack on smart contracts: a threat to blockchain security!
  73. 73. Slither: a static analyser for smart contracts!
  74. 74. Sandwich Attack at DeFi: explanation and risks!
  75. 75. Blockchain RPC for Web3: A key technology in the world of decentralized finance!
  76. 76. Re-staking: the benefits of re-posting in staking!
  77. 77. Base: Evolving cryptocurrency transactions with a tier-2 solution from Coinbase
  78. 78. IPFS: A new era of decentralized data storage
  79. 79. Typical vulnerabilities and bridge security in blockchain technology
  80. 80. JumpNet - Ethereum's new sidechain
Lesson 66 of 80
In Progress

66. What is proto-danksharding (EIP-4844) on Ethereum?

The Ethereum ecosystem is constantly improving. One of its biggest implementations in 2022 was the change of the consensus mechanism to Proof-of-Stake (PoS). Now, one of the network’s biggest improvements is planned to be EIP-4844 (Proto Danksharding).

This is the topic of today’s lesson. During it, we will discuss what the above implementation is and what benefits it will bring to Ethereum itself and other Layer 2 (Layer 2) solutions.

What is danksharding?

To understand the whole update, we must first discuss what danksharding actually is. This is a novel proposal for Ethereum that simplifies the sharding architecture, compared to previous projects.

Unlike traditional sharding, the one proposed in Ethereum does not expand the transaction space. Instead, it focuses on increasing the amount of space for data. The data fragments referred to in danksharding are so-called blobs, which the Ethereum protocol itself does not interpret. Verification of a blob involves checking its availability. The free space in these data chunks will be used by the Layer 2 rollups, which will support high-bandwidth transactions.

So what is the task of danksharding? It introduces a combined data marketplace. To circumvent the high requirements for validators, EIP-4844 introduces the concept of proponent/builder separation (PBS). Under this, proposerswill bid for the right to select the contents of a slot. The proposer only needs to select the correct headline – the one with the highest bid. At this point, you need to know that only the creator of the block can process the entire block. Other validators and users will be able to effectively verify blocks through data availability.

So what is Proto-Danksharding (EIP-4844)?

This is the first step towards full danksharding. It proposes to implement in Ethereum the necessary tools, such as transaction formats or verification rules, without implementing full sharding.

Proto-danksharding introduces blob-carrying transactions, which are very similar to normal transactions, but carry an additional piece of data-as mentioned in the paragraph above blobs. blobs are very large, but at the same time much cheaper. Importantly, the data contained in the blobs is not accessible to the Ethereum virtual machine (EVM). The machine can only view the blob commitment.

What does this approach provide? It scales the Ethereumecosystem, of course. Data transferred via proto-danksharding has a different gas fee and does not overload the Ethernet.

How does proto-danksharding (EIP-4844) work?

EIP-4844 will implement a new transaction type. It will contain additional data fragments – blobs. You can think of a Blob as a sequence of bytes of approximately 125 kB in size. Validators will validate blobs using a new type of cryptography KZG. Blobs are compatible with other data and will help reduce network load and unsustainable gas costs.

What’s more, transactions made with blobs help the Layer 2 solutions to retrieve data in real time. The addition of these data chunks will result in a new fee market in the Ethereumecosystem, separate from the gas market previously used for transaction fees.

Once proto-danksharding is implemented, Layer 2 solutions will have even more benefits. Transactions sent to Layer 1 will be ten times cheaper. This is a huge nod to the end user.

What are the main advantages of proto-danksharding?

First and foremost, EIP-4844 is the first step towards sharding. It will help scale tier 2rollups, as well as reduce gas charges.

EIP-4844 has not yet been implemented on the Ethereum network. It is still at the proposal stage.

Proto-danksharding (EIP-4844) vs EIP-4488

Both tools are proposed solutions to scale the Ethereum ecosystem. EIP-4488 does this by using two factors – reducing the cost of gas and the block size. Proto-danksharding creates a separate transaction type for large fixed-size blocks.

EIP-4488 wants to minimise immediate changes, while EIP-4844 makes more changes upfront to facilitate future upgrades to full sharding.


Proto-danksharding (EIP-4844) wants to implement part of full danksharding. The update is still at the proposal stage – it has not yet been implemented online. Proto-danksharding includes a new transaction proposal and an independent gas price for blobs.

This is the first step, with the aim of achieving full sharding by the Ethereumecosystem.

Complete today’s lesson!

  1. What is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and how does it work? [MASTER LEVEL]
  2. What is EIP-4337? Will Ethereum Account Abstraction change Web3 forever? [MASTER LEVEL]