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3. Advanced Course

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  1. 1. What is Taproot?
  2. 2. Blockchain bridges – what are they?
  3. 3. What is the 51% attack on blockchain?
  4. 4. Zero-knowledge proof – a protocol that respects privacy 
  5. 5. What is EOSREX?
  6. 6. Mirror Protocol – what it is? 
  7. 7. What is DAO, and how does it work?
  8. 8. What is spoofing in the cryptocurrency market? 
  9. 9. What is digital property rights in NFT?
  10. 10. How to verify a cryptocurrency project – cryptocurrency tokenomics 
  11. 11. What is Ethereum Plasma?
  12. 12. What is Ethereum Casper?
  13. 13. What is Selfish Mining? 
  14. 14. How to create your own NFT? 
  15. 15. Schnorr signatures - what are they? 
  16. 16. What is Zk-SNARK and Zk-STARK? 
  17. 17. What is Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET)?
  18. 18. MimbleWimble - what is it? 
  19. 19. What are ETFs and what role do they play in the cryptocurrency market? 
  20. 20. What are synthetic assets? 
  21. 21. Definition of DeFi, and what are its liquidations?
  22. 22. New identity system - Polygon ID
  23. 23. What is Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and how does it work?
  24. 24. Ethereum Foundation and the Scroll protocol - what is it?
  25. 25. What is Byzantine fault tolerance in blockchain technology?
  26. 26. Scalability of blockchain technology - what is it?
  27. 27. Interchain Security - new Cosmos (ATOM) protocol
  28. 28. Coin Mixing vs. Coin Join - definition, opportunities, and threats
  29. 29. Soulbound Tokens - what are they, and how do they work?
  30. 30. Definition of LIDO - what is it?
  31. 38. What is Web3 Infura?
  32. 39. Mantle - Ethereum L2 scalability - how does it work?
  33. 40. Polygon zkEVM - everything you need to know
  34. 41. What is Optimism (OP), and how do its roll-ups work?
  35. 42. What are RPC nodes, and how do they work?
  36. 43. SEI Network: everything you need to know about the Tier 1 solution for DeFi
  37. 44. Types of Proof-of-Stake Consensus Mechanisms: DPoS, LPoS and BPoS
  38. 45. Bedrock: the epileptic curve that ensures security!
  39. 46. What is Tendermint, and how does it work?
  40. 47. Pantos: how to solve the problem of token transfer between blockchains?
  41. 48. What is asymmetric encryption?
  42. 49. Base-58 Function in Cryptocurrencies
  43. 50. What Is the Nostr Protocol and How Does It Work?
  44. 51. What Is the XDAI Bridge and How Does It Work?
  45. 52. Solidity vs. Rust: What Are the Differences Between These Programming Languages?
  46. 53. What is a Pinata in Web 3? We explain!
  47. 54. What Is a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)?
Lesson 33 of 47
In Progress

40. Polygon zkEVM – everything you need to know

Polygon zkEVM has a very complex architecture. So before we get into it, we need to get to know its components step by step. zkEVM combines two powerful technologies. One is zero-knowledge proofs, and the other is Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). Let us start our lesson!

Zero knowledge and Ethereum Virtual Machine

Zero-knowledge protocols are cryptographic protocols that provide security in producing evidence to prove a particular proposition. Their basic premise is that they can prove “something” without revealing the information used to achieve that solution.

In the case of blockchain, zero-knowledge proofs are used to increase the privacy of a particular transaction, protect credentials and identifiers, or improve authentication. Off-chain solutions use zero-knowledge proofs to forward the validity proof of a given transaction to Layer 1. In this way, transactions are executed faster and with greater security.

We have written to you about the Ethereum Virtual Machine here [LINK-WHAT IS EVM AND HOW IT WORKS-THE MASTER LEVEL]. The Ethereum Virtual Machine is a system built on the Ethereum network that allows you to run smart contracts and dApps on the blockchain. The Ethereum ecosystem uses EVM to compile Solidity into bytecode. In addition, EVM receives input that causes changes to the current state of the network and triggers operations on the blockchain network.


It is also a topic we wrote about in our previous lesson [LINK – WHAT IS ZKEVM-THE MASTER LEVEL]. zkEVM combines speed and zero-knowledge proof-of-concept to reduce transaction costs on the Ethereum network and improve its scalability.

zkEVM was developed for one important reason. The potential of the Ethereum network is not fully realized. It is the world’s largest platform for smart contracts and offers added value for developers and projects. However, it is not being fully exploited due to scaling issues. Therefore, tools are being developed to help Ethereum realize its full potential.

Polygon zkEVM

It is a Layer 2 scaling solution that allows developers to execute transactions quickly and cheaply with smart contracts off-chain. At the same time, all proofs, and confirmations of data are kept on Ethereum’s secure blockchain.

zkEVM is a Zero-knowledge Ethereum Virtual Machine. According to the statement, Polygon’s zkEVM is compatible with EVM and takes full advantage of the entire Ethereum network ecosystem. The use of zero-knowledge proofs effectively reduces the cost of transactions and increases throughput, while maintaining Ethereum’s high level of security.

Developers and users of Polygon zkEVM can safely use the same code, tools, or applications they use on Ethereum. They also benefit from more bandwidth and lower fees with Polygon zkEVM.

So, what is special about Polygon zkEVM? The compatibility. The best way to scale Ethereum is to maintain compatibility with the entire ecosystem. zkEVM offers both developers and users the same experience as Ethereum L1, only with greater scalability.

Performance. With Polygon Zero and Miden, the protocol can achieve full compatibility with EVM. At the same time, it gives us better performance, higher throughput and lower transaction costs than L1. Therefore, Polygon zkEVM can validate 500K gas units on a single CPU server in about 5 minutes.

Significantly, Polygon zkEVM is the first protocol to implement STARK recursively. By implementing recursion, zkEVMs have a clear path to improving zero-knowledge proof time and scalability.

Where can we use Polygon zkEVM?

In DeFi applications. Polygon zkEVM is well suited for DeFi applications due to its high security and censorship resistance.

Another group for which Polygon zkEVM is well suited is NFT and GameFi. In this case, the low gas fee, high TPS and higher security level are taken into account, especially when combined with Ethereum. This will certainly encourage NFT and GameFi companies to build their applications on zkEVM.

Payments. Any user interested in fast and direct payments will certainly appreciate Polygon zkEVM.

How to use Polygon zkEVM?

First connect the MetaMask. Wallet to zkEVM, then add Polygon zkEVM to the wallet, go to the Network Selection drop-down menu, click Add Network and enter the following:

Network Name: Polygon zkEVM Testnet


Chain ID: 1442

Currency symbol: ETH

Bridge UI:

Block explorer URL:

‍L1 Goerli Smart Contract: 0xa997cfD539E703921fD1e3Cf25b4c241a27a4c7A.

The next step is to implement smart contracts in zkEVM. Any tool that works on Ethereum will also work on Polygon zkEVM. You can push smart contracts to the test network using your favourite scripting tool. The basic RPC configuration will be the same, but the whole process will be faster and cheaper.

You can then use Block Explorer to create and view transactions. Using the Ethereum scripting tool, select a smart contract with the deposit function. Then enter the amount and select the token you want to deposit. Voilà, and you’re done.


Polygon zkEVM is a scalable solution that increases scalability and throughput. At the same time, it reduces transaction costs, transaction time and the gas fee. However, in addition to the benefits, Polygon zkEVM also brings some challenges. It is very likely that the solution will be successful on Ethereum. However, this will only be decided by the developers.