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3. Advanced Course

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  1. 1. What is Taproot?
  2. 2. Blockchain bridges – what are they?
  3. 3. What is Ethereum Plasma?
  4. 4. What is Ethereum Casper?
  5. 5. What is Zk-SNARK and Zk-STARK? 
  6. 6. What is Selfish Mining? 
  7. 7. What is spoofing in the cryptocurrency market? 
  8. 8. Schnorr signatures - what are they? 
  9. 9. MimbleWimble - what is it? 
  10. 10. What is digital property rights in NFT?
  11. 11. What are ETFs and what role do they play in the cryptocurrency market? 
  12. 12. How to verify a cryptocurrency project – cryptocurrency tokenomics 
  13. 13. What is the 51% attack on blockchain?
  14. 14. What is DAO, and how does it work?
  15. 15. Zero-knowledge proof – a protocol that respects privacy 
  16. 16. What is EOSREX?
  17. 17. What is Proof of Elapsed Time (PoET)?
  18. 18. Mirror Protocol – what it is? 
  19. 19. What are synthetic assets? 
  20. 20. How to create your own NFT? 
  21. 21. Definition of DeFi, and what are its liquidations?
  22. 22. New identity system - Polygon ID
  23. 23. Ethereum Foundation and the Scroll protocol - what is it?
  24. 24. What is Byzantine fault tolerance in blockchain technology?
  25. 25. Scalability of blockchain technology - what is it?
  26. 26. Interchain Security - new Cosmos (ATOM) protocol
  27. 27. Coin Mixing vs. Coin Join - definition, opportunities, and threats
  28. 28. What is Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and how does it work?
  29. 29. Soulbound Tokens - what are they, and how do they work?
  30. 30. Definition of LIDO - what is it?
  31. 31. What are Threshold Signatures, and how do they work?
  32. 32. Blockchain technology and cyberattacks.
  33. 33. Bitcoin script - what it is, and what you should know about it.
  34. 34. What is zkEVM, and what are its basic features?
  35. 35. Do confidential transactions on blockchain exist? What is a Confidential Transaction?
  36. 36. Algorithmic stablecoins - everything you should know about them.
  37. 37. Polygon Zk Rollups ZKP - what should you know about it?
  38. 38. What is Web3 Infura?
  39. 39. Mantle - Ethereum L2 scalability - how does it work?
  40. 40. What is the NEAR Rainbow Bridge?
  41. 41. Liquid Staking Ethereum and LSD tokens. What do you need to know about it?
  42. 42. Top 10 blockchain oracles. How do they work? How do they differ?
  43. 43. What are Web3.js and Ether.js? What are the main differences between them?
  44. 44. What is StarkWare, and recursive validity proofs
  45. 45. Quant Network: scalability of the future
  46. 46. Polygon zkEVM - everything you need to know
  47. 47. What is Optimism (OP), and how do its roll-ups work?
  48. 48. What are RPC nodes, and how do they work?
  49. 49. SEI Network: everything you need to know about the Tier 1 solution for DeFi
  50. 50. Types of Proof-of-Stake Consensus Mechanisms: DPoS, LPoS and BPoS
  51. 51. Bedrock: the epileptic curve that ensures security!
  52. 52. What is Tendermint, and how does it work?
  53. 53. Pantos: how to solve the problem of token transfer between blockchains?
  54. 54. What is asymmetric encryption?
  55. 55. Base-58 Function in Cryptocurrencies
  56. 56. What Is the Nostr Protocol and How Does It Work?
  57. 57. What Is the XDAI Bridge and How Does It Work?
  58. 58. Solidity vs. Rust: What Are the Differences Between These Programming Languages?
  59. 59. What Is a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)?
  60. 60. What Is the Ethereum Rinkeby Testnet and How Does It Work?
  61. 61. What Is Probabilistic Encryption?
  62. 62. What is a Pinata in Web 3? We explain!
  63. 63. What Is EIP-4337? Will Ethereum Account Abstraction Change Web3 Forever?
  64. 64. What are smart contract audits? Which companies are involved?
  65. 65. How does the AirGapped wallet work?
  66. 66. What is proto-danksharding (EIP-4844) on Ethereum?
  67. 67. What is decentralised storage and how does it work?
  68. 68. How to Recover Cryptocurrencies Sent to the Wrong Address or Network: A Practical Guide
  69. 69. MPC Wallet and Multilateral Computing: Innovative Technology for Privacy and Security
  70. 70. Threshold signature in cryptography: an advanced signing technique!
  71. 71. Vanity address in cryptocurrencies: what is it and what are its characteristics?
  72. 72. Reentrancy Attack on smart contracts: a threat to blockchain security!
  73. 73. Slither: a static analyser for smart contracts!
  74. 74. Sandwich Attack at DeFi: explanation and risks!
  75. 75. Blockchain RPC for Web3: A key technology in the world of decentralized finance!
  76. 76. Re-staking: the benefits of re-posting in staking!
  77. 77. Base: Evolving cryptocurrency transactions with a tier-2 solution from Coinbase
  78. 78. IPFS: A new era of decentralized data storage
  79. 79. Typical vulnerabilities and bridge security in blockchain technology
  80. 80. JumpNet - Ethereum's new sidechain
Lesson 24 of 80
In Progress

24. What is Byzantine fault tolerance in blockchain technology?

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) is not the most discussed aspect regarding cryptocurrencies. However, it is the key to smooth operation of blockchain technology. First mention of the problem BFT are from 1982. In today’s lesson, we’ll tell you everything you need to know about it.

Byzantine generals problem – definition

As you know, the most important feature of cryptocurrencies is their decentralized nature. Distributed nodes verify and record transactions already in blockchain, which allows digital assets to operate without a central authority to manage them. To make this possible, cryptocurrencies need a proper way to reach consensus. And that’s where it shows up, Byzantine fault tolerance.

The issue of Byzantine fault tolerance is the ability of a computer system to continue its work even when its nodes fail or become infected with malware. The term itself comes from history and refers to the difficulty of Byzantine generals. This is a logical dilemma that requires a solution. Cryptocurrencies like maths!

Imagine a game where you have to defend a fortress. You are a general with your army. Most importantly, as a group, you must decide whether to attack the enemy or retreat. If democratically the decision is the same, you are successful. If there is no consensus or betrayal, the battle is lost, and the fortress is lost. These problems are Byzantine errors.

Let’s bring that to the present day. The general symbolizes a node in the network blockchain. The nodes must reach agreement, that is, the majority of members in a decentralized system must agree with each other and take the same action to prevent failure (defend the fortress) – that is, reach consensus. For the network to reach consensus, at least 66% of the nodes must be reliable and honest.

We had the historical and mathematical aspect, so now it’s time for the IT ☺ Byzantine fault tolerance is important because it tells us that the system can work even when some network components are not working properly.

As a curiosity, we will add that BFT is one of the most essential elements of blockchain technology that supports cryptocurrency transactions.

Byzantine fault tolerance for cryptocurrencies – how does it work?

Byzantine fault tolerance is the ability of a system, a computer network, to function even when some nodes are malfunctioning. It is important, especially in modern technology because it allows the system to function when part of it fails. So that blockchains can process transactions, the presence of BFT is necessary.

For the transaction to be validated on the network blockchain, the group of nodes serving it must reach an agreement. This is what we call a consensus algorithm, which is the rules they follow in network nodes to reach an internal agreement on the transaction.

Consensus is how a given blockchain achieves Byzantine fault tolerance. Every blockchain must work, even when some nodes provide false information or do not work properly.

We discussed consensus algorithms here. Most of them rely on some degree of Byzantine fault tolerance because any of them will work correctly even if not all nodes provide valid data.

Advantages of BTF

The first field is the ease and speed with which transactions can be carried out. BFT is fault-tolerant, which guarantees us an agreement and the time of our implementation transactions. So, it doesn’t matter how many nodes deliberately block our transaction or don’t want to reach an agreement.

The use of Byzantine fault tolerance is environmentally friendly. There is no high demand for computing power or energy consumption. What’s more, transactions do not require numerous verifications, thus the number of miners is reduced to a minimum.

BFT has lower power consumption than e.g. PoW. Blockchain technology, which uses Byzantine fault tolerance, does not require time-consuming and expensive processing, which reduces electricity consumption.

Disadvantages of BFT

The BFT system is vulnerable to cyberattacks and failures. Especially when most networks decide to behave incorrectly. We are talking about a 51% attack here. In addition to stealing assets, such action violates faith in blockchain and decentralized system for other users.


BFT is a basic tool that ensures the correct operation of the system, even when not all its participants have good intentions. It plays a critical role in the transformation of systems based on consensus. It may seem to us that the technical aspect of Byzantine fault tolerance applies only to computer scientists or cryptocurrency freaks. Nothing could be more wrong.