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2. Intermediate Course

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  1. 1. What is Layer 0 in Blockchain technology?
  2. 2. What is layer 1 in Blockchain?
  3. 3. Second layer (layer 2) - what is it? 
  4. 4. Blockchain and its layers - What is layer three in Blockchain (L3)?
  5. 5. Ethereum 2.0 - What is it? 
  6. 6. Ethereum Proof-of-Stake (PoS) - what should you know?
  7. 7. Ethereum London Hard Fork - what is it ? 
  8. 8. What is the Ethereum Name Service (ENS) and how does it work?
  9. 9. Arbitrum: Ethereum scaling solution - everything you need to know
  10. 10. Polygon 2.0 - the value layer for the Internet
  11. 11. Ethereum ERC-4337 - what is it and how does this standard work?
  12. 12. What is an ERC20 token and how is it created?
  13. 13. The ERC-721X VS ERC-721 Standard – Key Differences!
  14. 14. What is cryptocurrency burning?
  15. 15. Examples of the use of WEB3 on the blockchain
  16. 16. What is Web5? 
  17. 17. Blockchain Oracle - what are oracles? 
  18. 18. Polkadot - Decentralized blockchain and DOT cryptocurrency
  19. 19. Polkadot Parachain - Next-generation blockchain
  20. 20. Interoperability in the world of cryptocurrencies and blockchain
  21. 21. What is Blockchain sharding?
  22. 22. Mainnet versus Testnet on the Blockchain. The complete guide!
  23. 23. MINA Protocol: the lightest blockchain in the world!
  24. 24. Sustainable Blockchain - Proof of Useful Work & Flux
  25. 25. Cosmos SDK: Building the Blockchain Ecosystem
  26. 26. What is cross-chain interoperability in Blockchain technology?
  27. 27. Blockchain trilemma - explanation of the problem. What is the impact on cryptocurrency payments?
  28. 28. Non-fungible tokens and NFT exchanges
  29. 29. How to make money with NFT?
  30. 30. What is the NFT licence fee?
  31. 31. NFT Gas Fee - what is it? How can you reduce your gas fee?
  32. 32. The main differences between static NFT and dynamic NFT
  33. 33. What is minting an NFT?
  34. 34. What are NFT Ordinals? A guide to Bitcoin NFT.
  35. 35. What is KnowOrigin NFT, and how does it work?
  36. 36. ERC-6551 - the new NFT standard. What does it bring to the non-exchangeable token sector?
  37. 37. What is NFT Lending all about? An innovative solution in the world of cryptocurrencies!
  38. 38. The Metaverse – a new virtual world
  39. 39. Metaverse – TOP 15 virtual reality projects
  40. 40. Technical analysis – is it worth using?
  41. 41. Trading order types: stop loss, trailing stop loss, LIMIT
  42. 42. Market Cap versus Fully Diluted Market Cap - the most important differences you should know!
  43. 43. Set up of Stop Loss and Take Profit orders
  44. 44. What are DeFi liquidity pools?
  45. 45. Real Yield in DeFi - what is this trend? What does it consist of?
  46. 46. Vampire Attacks in Decentralized Finance (DeFi): Explanation and Examples
  47. 47. What are wrapped tokens 
  48. 48. What are security tokens?
  49. 49. What are Social Tokens? 
  50. 50. Liquidity Provider Tokens (LPs). What are they, and why are they so important?
  51. 51. What is the Lightning Network, and how does it work?
  52. 52. What is Play-to-Earn (P2E) and how does it work?
  53. 53. Cryptocurrency steps - What is move to earn M2E?
  54. 54. Segregated Witness - what is Segwit Bitcoin all about?
  55. 55. What are Decentralized Cryptocurrency DEX Exchanges?
  56. 56. What is Curve Finance?
  57. 57. What is GameFi and how does it work?
  58. 58. What is Proof of Reserves (PoR)? How does it work?
  59. 59. DAO Investment: A revolution in the world of finance and investment
  60. 60. What is MakerDAO and DAI Stablecoin?
  61. 61. What is the SubDAO protocol, and how does it work?
  62. 62. How to Create Your Own Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)?
  63. 63. Atomic Swap: What is an atomic swap, and how does it work with cryptocurrencies?
  64. 64. What Is Cryptocurrency Vesting? What Are Its Advantages?
  65. 65. What Is the Metaplex Candy Machine Protocol? How Does It Work?
  66. 66. What Is the BNB Greenfield Ecosystem?
  67. 67. What Is Slashing in Cryptocurrencies?
  68. 68. Royalties – What Are They? How Does This Type of Licensing Fee Work?
  69. 69. What is TradFi? The importance for cryptocurrencies!
  70. 70. What is the Real World Asset (RWA) trend in cryptocurrencies? Explanation and examples!
  71. 71. Pyth Network: a powerful oracle harnessing the power of Solana!
  72. 72. What are stables in the world of cryptocurrencies?
  73. 73. What Is Binance Oracle?
  74. 74. Shibarium: A new era in the Shiba Inu ecosystem?
  75. 75. What is an ETF? How will an exchange-traded fund on bitcoin work?
  76. 76. Symmetric and asymmetric encryption - key cryptography techniques!
  77. 77. Hedging in cryptocurrencies - great portfolio protection against risk!
  78. 78. How to create your own cryptocurrency? 
  79. 79. What is a Dusting Attack in cryptocurrencies? How to protect against it?
  80. 80. What is a Black Swan?
Lesson 76 of 80
In Progress

76. Symmetric and asymmetric encryption – key cryptography techniques!

Cryptography, the science of securing data, plays a key role in today’s digital world. The two main encryption approaches used in cryptography are symmetric and asymmetric encryption.

A comparison of these two types of encryption is often used in the world of cryptography and computer security. Keep in mind, however, that both types of encryption discussed today have their advantages and disadvantages. The choice between them depends primarily on the specific needs of the user.

Interesting fact: The very concept of encryption is popular in films and TV shows that deal with hacking and espionage. An example is the popular TV series Mr. Robot.

In this article we will look at these two techniques, explain how they work and their applications.

What is data encryption? Definition.

Before we move on to the main topic of our lesson today, let us recall the definition of encryption. Data encryption is a process that involves taking some piece of information and translating it into an unrecognisable piece of that information. The message so encrypted is called encryption.

In order to obtain such a result, the given information has to be passed through the encryption algorithm. It takes the original information we want to encrypt and, based on random rules, transforms it into a new, indecipherable piece of data. Imagine that this is a translation of the given fragment into a language you do not know.

The result is information in a new language that hides sensitive data and is converted into a secret code that cannot be decrypted without knowing the rules or the key.

Symmetric encryption

In this method, there is only one key that we use to encrypt and decrypt the information. Because we use a single key, the whole process is simple to implement. Example:

  1. You encrypt a message to your friend using an agreed key.
  2. You send the text in question.
  3. Your friend will use the given key to decrypt the given message.

With symmetric encryption we use a single key to encrypt and decrypt a given message. The key is a shared ‘secret’ that is shared by those encrypting symmetrically.

The advantage of this way of encryption is definitely faster performance and low resource consumption. It also has its disadvantages, One is that you share the key with many people who will not always want to put it to good use.

Symmetric encryption is very popular and is a way of securing data in various applications to ensure confidentiality. It is an essential part of modern cybersecurity. Here are some examples of applications and tools that use symmetric encryption:

  1. Popular messaging apps like WhatsApp and Telegram. With symmetric encryption they ensure that the messages we send to another person are encrypted from start to finish. They are only visible and readable to those who are the intended recipients.
  2. Software designed for encryption such as VeraCrypto. These programmes are designed to encrypt files in order to protect sensitive data stored on devices. They keep them safe even if the key is lost or the device in question is stolen.

Asymmetric encryption

It is a little more complicated than symmetric encryption. Why? Because to use it we need two keys – one to encrypt the information and one to decrypt it. In this case, neither key performs both functions.

Asymmetric encryption is a newer and definitely more secure way of encrypting sensitive information. In this case, we need two keys:

  1. Public key, available to anyone who encrypts the information in question. It does not work in the decryption process.
  2. The private key that is responsible for decrypting the information in question. It is held by that person whose job it is to decrypt the information.

Thanks to the use of two pairs of keys, this type of encryption can be found in many industries and technologies that are strongly concerned with securing transmitted information. This method is comprehensively used to protect sensitive data and ensure more secure communication. Practical applications of asymmetric encryption include:

  1. Email communication (PGP. S/MIME). Both protocols use private and public keys to encrypt the content of transmitted e-mails. This ensures confidentiality and maintains the integrity of the message.
  2. Digital signatures also use the asymmetric encryption model. This provides assurance that the document has not been forged. It also confirms the identity of the signatory.
  3. SSL/TLS protocols you have encountered in online banking, for example. They are used to secure the transmission of data between the user’s browser and the website.

Symmetric and asymmetric encryption – comparison

Both techniques have applications in securing data. Symmetric encryption uses one key for encryption, while asymmetric encryption uses two – a public key and a private key. Choosing the right encryptionmethod depends on the user and their needs, but it is useful to know the basic differences between them. These are:

  1. First and foremost, speed. This is led by symmetric encryption, which is faster than asymmetric. It requires less computing power. It is a good solution for encrypting a large amount of data.
  2. Key security. With symmetric encryption one key encrypts and decrypts the message. You must share it with the people the text is intended to reach. This is not a secure method. Asymmetric encryption in this respect is much more secure, giving us a choice of public and private key.
  3. Usage. In practice, symmetric encryption is an ideal way to encrypt messages in closed systems, such as large corporations where employees know each other and can trust each other. Asymmetric encryption is a good method to use in open systems. An example of this would be online banking.
  4. Overall security. Because of the use of a public and private key, it is asymmetric encryption that is the more secure method. The two keys make it more difficult for attackers to break into a given system. Remember, however, that properly implemented symmetric encryption can still provide strong security.

How do I choose the right encryption method?

It all depends on the specific requirements you have in terms of security and use cases. When selecting a particular method, consider key management, computational efficiency and the encryption functionality you desire.


Symmetric and asymmetric encryption are two key cryptography techniques. The choice between the two depends on specific data security needs and scenarios. Symmetric encryption is fast and efficient, while asymmetric encryption offers greater security and allows the use of public keys for communication without the risk of revealing the private key. Both approaches are indispensable in today’s digital world, where data protection is a priority.

Complete today’s lesson!

  1. What is asymmetric encryption?
  2. What is probabilistic encryption?