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2. Intermediate Course

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  1. 1. What is Layer 0 in Blockchain technology?
  2. 2. What is layer 1 in Blockchain?
  3. 3. Second layer (layer 2) - what is it? 
  4. 4. Blockchain and its layers - What is layer three in Blockchain (L3)?
  5. 5. Ethereum 2.0 - What is it? 
  6. 6. Ethereum Proof-of-Stake (PoS) - what should you know?
  7. 7. Ethereum London Hard Fork - what is it ? 
  8. 8. What is the Ethereum Name Service (ENS) and how does it work?
  9. 9. Arbitrum: Ethereum scaling solution - everything you need to know
  10. 10. Polygon 2.0 - the value layer for the Internet
  11. 11. Ethereum ERC-4337 - what is it and how does this standard work?
  12. 12. What is an ERC20 token and how is it created?
  13. 13. The ERC-721X VS ERC-721 Standard – Key Differences!
  14. 14. What is cryptocurrency burning?
  15. 15. Examples of the use of WEB3 on the blockchain
  16. 16. What is Web5? 
  17. 17. Blockchain Oracle - what are oracles? 
  18. 18. Polkadot - Decentralized blockchain and DOT cryptocurrency
  19. 19. Polkadot Parachain - Next-generation blockchain
  20. 20. Interoperability in the world of cryptocurrencies and blockchain
  21. 21. What is Blockchain sharding?
  22. 22. Mainnet versus Testnet on the Blockchain. The complete guide!
  23. 23. MINA Protocol: the lightest blockchain in the world!
  24. 24. Sustainable Blockchain - Proof of Useful Work & Flux
  25. 25. Cosmos SDK: Building the Blockchain Ecosystem
  26. 26. What is cross-chain interoperability in Blockchain technology?
  27. 27. Blockchain trilemma - explanation of the problem. What is the impact on cryptocurrency payments?
  28. 28. Non-fungible tokens and NFT exchanges
  29. 29. How to make money with NFT?
  30. 30. What is the NFT licence fee?
  31. 31. NFT Gas Fee - what is it? How can you reduce your gas fee?
  32. 32. The main differences between static NFT and dynamic NFT
  33. 33. What is minting an NFT?
  34. 34. What are NFT Ordinals? A guide to Bitcoin NFT.
  35. 35. What is KnowOrigin NFT, and how does it work?
  36. 36. ERC-6551 - the new NFT standard. What does it bring to the non-exchangeable token sector?
  37. 37. What is NFT Lending all about? An innovative solution in the world of cryptocurrencies!
  38. 38. The Metaverse – a new virtual world
  39. 39. Metaverse – TOP 15 virtual reality projects
  40. 40. Technical analysis – is it worth using?
  41. 41. Trading order types: stop loss, trailing stop loss, LIMIT
  42. 42. Market Cap versus Fully Diluted Market Cap - the most important differences you should know!
  43. 43. Set up of Stop Loss and Take Profit orders
  44. 44. What are DeFi liquidity pools?
  45. 45. Real Yield in DeFi - what is this trend? What does it consist of?
  46. 46. Vampire Attacks in Decentralized Finance (DeFi): Explanation and Examples
  47. 47. What are wrapped tokens 
  48. 48. What are security tokens?
  49. 49. What are Social Tokens? 
  50. 50. Liquidity Provider Tokens (LPs). What are they, and why are they so important?
  51. 51. What is the Lightning Network, and how does it work?
  52. 52. What is Play-to-Earn (P2E) and how does it work?
  53. 53. Cryptocurrency steps - What is move to earn M2E?
  54. 54. Segregated Witness - what is Segwit Bitcoin all about?
  55. 55. What are Decentralized Cryptocurrency DEX Exchanges?
  56. 56. What is Curve Finance?
  57. 57. What is GameFi and how does it work?
  58. 58. What is Proof of Reserves (PoR)? How does it work?
  59. 59. DAO Investment: A revolution in the world of finance and investment
  60. 60. What is MakerDAO and DAI Stablecoin?
  61. 61. What is the SubDAO protocol, and how does it work?
  62. 62. How to Create Your Own Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)?
  63. 63. Atomic Swap: What is an atomic swap, and how does it work with cryptocurrencies?
  64. 64. What Is Cryptocurrency Vesting? What Are Its Advantages?
  65. 65. What Is the Metaplex Candy Machine Protocol? How Does It Work?
  66. 66. What Is the BNB Greenfield Ecosystem?
  67. 67. What Is Slashing in Cryptocurrencies?
  68. 68. Royalties – What Are They? How Does This Type of Licensing Fee Work?
  69. 69. What is TradFi? The importance for cryptocurrencies!
  70. 70. What is the Real World Asset (RWA) trend in cryptocurrencies? Explanation and examples!
  71. 71. Pyth Network: a powerful oracle harnessing the power of Solana!
  72. 72. What are stables in the world of cryptocurrencies?
  73. 73. What Is Binance Oracle?
  74. 74. Shibarium: A new era in the Shiba Inu ecosystem?
  75. 75. What is an ETF? How will an exchange-traded fund on bitcoin work?
  76. 76. Symmetric and asymmetric encryption - key cryptography techniques!
  77. 77. Hedging in cryptocurrencies - great portfolio protection against risk!
  78. 78. How to create your own cryptocurrency? 
  79. 79. What is a Dusting Attack in cryptocurrencies? How to protect against it?
  80. 80. What is a Black Swan?
Lesson 68 of 80
In Progress

68. Royalties – What Are They? How Does This Type of Licensing Fee Work?

In today’s lesson, we’ll talk about payments, or in fact, their methods. One of them is the so-called royalty payments, which are nothing more than a variation of license fees. Royalties are payments to individuals, or companies, for the use of their assets. These can be copyrighted works, natural resources or even franchises.

A good example of such royalties would be the payments that musicians receive for the use of their works in films. In the vast majority of cases that we know of, royalties compensate the owner for the use of his license for a particular item.

TTS: How Do Such Royalties Work in Everyday Life?

To get to the topic of royalties, we must first understand how license fees work. License fees are usually a percentage of the revenue, gross or net, generated from the use of a thing. They can be negotiated on a case-by-case basis, and in practice, the percentage depends on that as well.

In the case of royalties, the process works very similarly. The creator of a particular thing or work may choose to sell the product in question, in exchange for royalties from the future revenue that the product, such as a piece of music, will generate. This is how Microsoft operates. Computer manufacturers pay the company royalties, for the use of its operating system.

The licensing agreements benefit the licensor (that’s the person who receives such royalties) as well as the licensee (that’s the person who pays for the royalties). For the licensor, such an agreement is a door to new opportunities, and for the licensee, access to products that no one else has access to.

Royalties cover many types of properties. Let’s have a look:

  • Franchise royalty. It happens when a business owner pays a royalty to the franchisor for opening a store, for example. In Poland, a good example of this would be the popular “Żabka” chain (like 7-Eleven in the USA).
  • Patent. We deal with it when someone patents their product. Then, if we want to use such a product (or service), we have to buy a license. In this way, the innovator in question gets paid for their intellectual property.
  • Book royalties. In practice, they are paid to authors by publishers. For each book sold, the author receives a pre-agreed amount.
  • Mineral rights. Yes, there are fees in this sector as well. They are paid by entities that extract, for example, oil on property owned by someone else. For lending a plot of land for such a purpose, the landowner can demand a royalty.
  • Entertainment royalties. This type of royalty refers to music, protected by copyright. The creator, or rather the owner of such a work, receives a certain amount every time his music is played on the radio, in a movie or used by a third party.

So as you can see, there are quite a few types of royalties. Remember, however, that the terms of license fees or royalties are defined in the contract. Importantly, this type of contract is subject to unique legal regulations. In everyday life, many conditions affect the amount of such a fee. All transactions that involve royalties must be conducted on market terms. This means that the agreement and cooperation is voluntary, not forced.

Royalties in the Cryptocurrency Market

If this type of payment had not appeared in the cryptocurrency sector, we would not have mentioned it to you. In fact, royalties are the distinguishing feature of non-fungible tokens. They have this amazing ability to pay royalties to artists and designers. 

NFT royalties work virtually the same way – they provide the artists in question with a percentage of sales each time their works are resold. It doesn’t matter how many secondary sales occur, the fees will always be returned to the original creator. And what’s most interesting – this process is completely automated by blockchain technology and smart contracts. So we can confidently say that in the case of NFTs, artists make money indefinitely.

How Does this Whole Process Work?

The amount of royalties depends on the conditions specified in the smart contract, when minting a given NFT. It all depends on the platform on which you mint the token. You will ask – how is this possible? All thanks to the immutability of blockchain technology. In this case, the protocols assure us whether the requirements in the smart contracts have been met and whether the appropriate action has been taken to implement them. Here it will be the payment of royalties.

In addition, unlike the licensing agreements discussed earlier, in this case the blockchain will perform these functions on its own. The artist, or rather the NFT creator, does not need an agent or other intermediaries to help him. With this process, he gets full control over his work and also avoids disputes over ownership. Moreover, the amount earned depends on secondary sales.


Royalties are the way owners earn money from their assets. They come in the form of contracts or licenses, with specific terms under which a third party can use the works in question. There are a lot of royalties! Some contracts are for a fixed term, and some are indefinite.

For non-fungible tokens, the process works very similarly. In this case, however, it is subjected to greater automation. Creators have full control over their creation, right from the moment it is made or minted. Their earnings also depend on the amount of secondary sales. In this situation, artists are assured that they are being fairly compensated for their work.

Complete today’s lesson!

  1. What are NFT license fees? [ INTERMEDIATE LEVEL]
  2. Smart contracts – what are they? [ BEGINNER LEVEL]
  3. What is an NFT? [ BEGINNER LEVEL]