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2. Intermediate Course

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  1. 1. What is Layer 0 in Blockchain technology?
  2. 2. What is layer 1 in Blockchain?
  3. 3. Second layer (layer 2) - what is it? 
  4. 4. Blockchain and its layers - What is layer three in Blockchain (L3)?
  5. 5. Ethereum 2.0 - What is it? 
  6. 6. Ethereum Proof-of-Stake (PoS) - what should you know?
  7. 7. Ethereum London Hard Fork - what is it ? 
  8. 8. What is the Ethereum Name Service (ENS) and how does it work?
  9. 9. Arbitrum: Ethereum scaling solution - everything you need to know
  10. 10. Polygon 2.0 - the value layer for the Internet
  11. 11. Ethereum ERC-4337 - what is it and how does this standard work?
  12. 12. What is an ERC20 token and how is it created?
  13. 13. The ERC-721X VS ERC-721 Standard – Key Differences!
  14. 14. What is cryptocurrency burning?
  15. 15. Examples of the use of WEB3 on the blockchain
  16. 16. What is Web5? 
  17. 17. Blockchain Oracle - what are oracles? 
  18. 18. Polkadot - Decentralized blockchain and DOT cryptocurrency
  19. 19. Polkadot Parachain - Next-generation blockchain
  20. 20. Interoperability in the world of cryptocurrencies and blockchain
  21. 21. What is Blockchain sharding?
  22. 22. Mainnet versus Testnet on the Blockchain. The complete guide!
  23. 23. MINA Protocol: the lightest blockchain in the world!
  24. 24. Sustainable Blockchain - Proof of Useful Work & Flux
  25. 25. Cosmos SDK: Building the Blockchain Ecosystem
  26. 26. What is cross-chain interoperability in Blockchain technology?
  27. 27. Blockchain trilemma - explanation of the problem. What is the impact on cryptocurrency payments?
  28. 28. Non-fungible tokens and NFT exchanges
  29. 29. How to make money with NFT?
  30. 30. What is the NFT licence fee?
  31. 31. NFT Gas Fee - what is it? How can you reduce your gas fee?
  32. 32. The main differences between static NFT and dynamic NFT
  33. 33. What is minting an NFT?
  34. 34. What are NFT Ordinals? A guide to Bitcoin NFT.
  35. 35. What is KnowOrigin NFT, and how does it work?
  36. 36. ERC-6551 - the new NFT standard. What does it bring to the non-exchangeable token sector?
  37. 37. What is NFT Lending all about? An innovative solution in the world of cryptocurrencies!
  38. 38. The Metaverse – a new virtual world
  39. 39. Metaverse – TOP 15 virtual reality projects
  40. 40. Technical analysis – is it worth using?
  41. 41. Trading order types: stop loss, trailing stop loss, LIMIT
  42. 42. Market Cap versus Fully Diluted Market Cap - the most important differences you should know!
  43. 43. Set up of Stop Loss and Take Profit orders
  44. 44. What are DeFi liquidity pools?
  45. 45. Real Yield in DeFi - what is this trend? What does it consist of?
  46. 46. Vampire Attacks in Decentralized Finance (DeFi): Explanation and Examples
  47. 47. What are wrapped tokens 
  48. 48. What are security tokens?
  49. 49. What are Social Tokens? 
  50. 50. Liquidity Provider Tokens (LPs). What are they, and why are they so important?
  51. 51. What is the Lightning Network, and how does it work?
  52. 52. What is Play-to-Earn (P2E) and how does it work?
  53. 53. Cryptocurrency steps - What is move to earn M2E?
  54. 54. Segregated Witness - what is Segwit Bitcoin all about?
  55. 55. What are Decentralized Cryptocurrency DEX Exchanges?
  56. 56. What is Curve Finance?
  57. 57. What is GameFi and how does it work?
  58. 58. What is Proof of Reserves (PoR)? How does it work?
  59. 59. DAO Investment: A revolution in the world of finance and investment
  60. 60. What is MakerDAO and DAI Stablecoin?
  61. 61. What is the SubDAO protocol, and how does it work?
  62. 62. How to Create Your Own Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)?
  63. 63. Atomic Swap: What is an atomic swap, and how does it work with cryptocurrencies?
  64. 64. What Is Cryptocurrency Vesting? What Are Its Advantages?
  65. 65. What Is the Metaplex Candy Machine Protocol? How Does It Work?
  66. 66. What Is the BNB Greenfield Ecosystem?
  67. 67. What Is Slashing in Cryptocurrencies?
  68. 68. Royalties – What Are They? How Does This Type of Licensing Fee Work?
  69. 69. What is TradFi? The importance for cryptocurrencies!
  70. 70. What is the Real World Asset (RWA) trend in cryptocurrencies? Explanation and examples!
  71. 71. Pyth Network: a powerful oracle harnessing the power of Solana!
  72. 72. What are stables in the world of cryptocurrencies?
  73. 73. What Is Binance Oracle?
  74. 74. Shibarium: A new era in the Shiba Inu ecosystem?
  75. 75. What is an ETF? How will an exchange-traded fund on bitcoin work?
  76. 76. Symmetric and asymmetric encryption - key cryptography techniques!
  77. 77. Hedging in cryptocurrencies - great portfolio protection against risk!
  78. 78. How to create your own cryptocurrency? 
  79. 79. What is a Dusting Attack in cryptocurrencies? How to protect against it?
  80. 80. What is a Black Swan?
Lesson 13 of 80
In Progress

13. The ERC-721X VS ERC-721 Standard – Key Differences!

Tokens are designed within the blockchain. Each of them meets certain standards. Such a defined standard allows us to certify a given NFT and its authentication.

Every non-fungible token is generated through a smart contract, making it distinguishable and uniquely identifiable. The commonly used standard for this purpose is ERC-721.

More recently, because during the Bitcoin Ordinals boom, Solidity’s leading developer CyberKongz, OwlofMoistness developed an enhancement to this widely used standard. ERC-721X, as it is referred to, adds many beneficial layers of security to our NFTs. Let’s get to know it better and take a look at the key differences that define these two standards!

ERC – What Is It Exactly?

ERC, or “Ethereum Request for Comments” – this is a token standard that implements an API for smart contract tokens. It provides basic functions for these NFTs, such as:

  • Transferring tokens from one account to another.
  • Obtaining account balance.
  • Obtaining information about the total supply of tokens available on the network.
  • Confirming transactions.

The most common standard that we are familiar with is ERC-20. It is responsible for fungible NFTs. In practice, this means that each token is exactly the same in type and value as another token. For example: one ERC-20 token works similarly to 1 ETH.

ERC-721 – What Does This Standard Mean?

It is definitely an improvement for ERC-20. A token with this standard is unique, but at the same time can have a different value than a token from the same contract. How is this possible?

You need to know that all NFT tokens have a variable Unit256 function called TokenId. For each ERC-721 standard token, the combination of Contract Address, Unit256 and TokenId can be different. As a result, the TokenId function can use the input data and show us a picture of something really cool!

ERC-721 was invented by William Entriken, Dieter Shirley, Jacob Evans and Nastassia Sachs in January 2018.

The ERC-721X Standard: A New Proposal for Non-Fungible Tokens!

The new token standard is something like 2FA on-chain. There are many dangers lurking in the cryptocurrency sector. Scammers are just waiting for us to stumble and make a mistake. Hence the idea of ERC-721X, which is a token to protect NFT holders. ERC-721X offers two-factor authentication by designating the owner’s second wallet as a “gatekeeper,” ensuring NFT transfers require proper authorization.

How Does ERC-721X Work…?

This standard consists of two layers: locking and guarding.

The locking function is linked to the ERC-721 standard. When you lock your NFT, you use the lock registry. This is a system that combines with ERC-721 in its operation, and requires a small amount of gas. The function allows you to lock and unlock your resources. We cannot move our resources until they are removed from the lock registry.

The lock registry itself was created with parallel staking capabilities in mind. Assets staked this way can be used on multiple systems without losing ownership.

The second option of the ERC-721X standard is the guarding function. Instead of a wallet holding an NFT and blocking tokens, a wallet holding NFT data assigns a second wallet as a protection wallet. This is called the “Guardian” wallet. Such a wallet can then block assets in the wallet, and is also responsible for approving the tokens in question for transfer, seemingly creating a 2FA of the chain. The guardian wallet must be a cold wallet to ensure the highest level of security.

What Problems Does ERC-721X Solve?

First of all, the issue of security. We use hot wallets on a daily basis, because let’s be honest – they are convenient to use. However, with such convenience, come many dangers.

The guardian contract secures hot wallets. It allows us to safeguard our assets by adding another layer of protection, in the form of a second hardware wallet. With this standard, scams will be more difficult to carry out. Email attacks, social engineering scams, seed phrase scams – none of these methods will work if they are blocked with a second wallet.

Thanks to ERC-721X, the number of hacking attacks will be drastically reduced, saving hundreds of thousands, if not millions in NFT value for users!


The new standard will make the Web3 community feel even safer. The technology is a step forward to enhance the security of non-fungible tokens. Other projects are increasingly eager to adopt the ERC-721X standard in their collections.

ERC-721X was created to add a layer of security for NFT holders. It allows users to participate in staking with a lock registry and designate a “Guardian” for two-factor authentication (2FA).

Complete today’s lesson!

  1. What is an NFT? [BEGINNER LEVEL]
  2. What is an ERC-20 token and how is it created? [INTERMEDIATE LEVEL]
  3. How to create your own NFT. [MASTER LEVEL]