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2. Intermediate Course

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  1. 1. What is Layer 0 in Blockchain technology?
  2. 2. What is layer 1 in Blockchain?
  3. 3. Second layer (layer 2) - what is it? 
  4. 4. Blockchain and its layers - What is layer three in Blockchain (L3)?
  5. 5. Ethereum 2.0 - What is it? 
  6. 6. Ethereum Proof-of-Stake (PoS) - what should you know?
  7. 7. Ethereum London Hard Fork - what is it ? 
  8. 8. What is the Ethereum Name Service (ENS) and how does it work?
  9. 9. Arbitrum: Ethereum scaling solution - everything you need to know
  10. 10. Polygon 2.0 - the value layer for the Internet
  11. 11. Ethereum ERC-4337 - what is it and how does this standard work?
  12. 12. What is an ERC20 token and how is it created?
  13. 13. The ERC-721X VS ERC-721 Standard – Key Differences!
  14. 14. What is cryptocurrency burning?
  15. 15. Examples of the use of WEB3 on the blockchain
  16. 16. What is Web5? 
  17. 17. Blockchain Oracle - what are oracles? 
  18. 18. Polkadot - Decentralized blockchain and DOT cryptocurrency
  19. 19. Polkadot Parachain - Next-generation blockchain
  20. 20. Interoperability in the world of cryptocurrencies and blockchain
  21. 21. What is Blockchain sharding?
  22. 22. Mainnet versus Testnet on the Blockchain. The complete guide!
  23. 23. MINA Protocol: the lightest blockchain in the world!
  24. 24. Sustainable Blockchain - Proof of Useful Work & Flux
  25. 25. Cosmos SDK: Building the Blockchain Ecosystem
  26. 26. What is cross-chain interoperability in Blockchain technology?
  27. 27. Blockchain trilemma - explanation of the problem. What is the impact on cryptocurrency payments?
  28. 28. Non-fungible tokens and NFT exchanges
  29. 29. How to make money with NFT?
  30. 30. What is the NFT licence fee?
  31. 31. NFT Gas Fee - what is it? How can you reduce your gas fee?
  32. 32. The main differences between static NFT and dynamic NFT
  33. 33. What is minting an NFT?
  34. 34. What are NFT Ordinals? A guide to Bitcoin NFT.
  35. 35. What is KnowOrigin NFT, and how does it work?
  36. 36. ERC-6551 - the new NFT standard. What does it bring to the non-exchangeable token sector?
  37. 37. What is NFT Lending all about? An innovative solution in the world of cryptocurrencies!
  38. 38. The Metaverse – a new virtual world
  39. 39. Metaverse – TOP 15 virtual reality projects
  40. 40. Technical analysis – is it worth using?
  41. 41. Trading order types: stop loss, trailing stop loss, LIMIT
  42. 42. Market Cap versus Fully Diluted Market Cap - the most important differences you should know!
  43. 43. Set up of Stop Loss and Take Profit orders
  44. 44. What are DeFi liquidity pools?
  45. 45. Real Yield in DeFi - what is this trend? What does it consist of?
  46. 46. Vampire Attacks in Decentralized Finance (DeFi): Explanation and Examples
  47. 47. What are wrapped tokens 
  48. 48. What are security tokens?
  49. 49. What are Social Tokens? 
  50. 50. Liquidity Provider Tokens (LPs). What are they, and why are they so important?
  51. 51. What is the Lightning Network, and how does it work?
  52. 52. What is Play-to-Earn (P2E) and how does it work?
  53. 53. Cryptocurrency steps - What is move to earn M2E?
  54. 54. Segregated Witness - what is Segwit Bitcoin all about?
  55. 55. What are Decentralized Cryptocurrency DEX Exchanges?
  56. 56. What is Curve Finance?
  57. 57. What is GameFi and how does it work?
  58. 58. What is Proof of Reserves (PoR)? How does it work?
  59. 59. DAO Investment: A revolution in the world of finance and investment
  60. 60. What is MakerDAO and DAI Stablecoin?
  61. 61. What is the SubDAO protocol, and how does it work?
  62. 62. How to Create Your Own Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)?
  63. 63. Atomic Swap: What is an atomic swap, and how does it work with cryptocurrencies?
  64. 64. What Is Cryptocurrency Vesting? What Are Its Advantages?
  65. 65. What Is the Metaplex Candy Machine Protocol? How Does It Work?
  66. 66. What Is the BNB Greenfield Ecosystem?
  67. 67. What Is Slashing in Cryptocurrencies?
  68. 68. Royalties – What Are They? How Does This Type of Licensing Fee Work?
  69. 69. What is TradFi? The importance for cryptocurrencies!
  70. 70. What is the Real World Asset (RWA) trend in cryptocurrencies? Explanation and examples!
  71. 71. Pyth Network: a powerful oracle harnessing the power of Solana!
  72. 72. What are stables in the world of cryptocurrencies?
  73. 73. What Is Binance Oracle?
  74. 74. Shibarium: A new era in the Shiba Inu ecosystem?
  75. 75. What is an ETF? How will an exchange-traded fund on bitcoin work?
  76. 76. Symmetric and asymmetric encryption - key cryptography techniques!
  77. 77. Hedging in cryptocurrencies - great portfolio protection against risk!
  78. 78. How to create your own cryptocurrency? 
  79. 79. What is a Dusting Attack in cryptocurrencies? How to protect against it?
  80. 80. What is a Black Swan?
Lesson 51 of 80
In Progress

51. What is the Lightning Network, and how does it work?

Lightning Network (LN) is closely related to Bitcoin and the layer two solutions we discussed in our previous lessons. The flagship cryptocurrency has revolutionized the banking system, giving us the ability to invest without the oversight of central banks or governments. However, from the beginning, its Achilles’ heel was limited in transaction processing and scalability. To improve this issue, it was decided to use a solution, the Lightning Network (LN). Below you will find an explanation of what it is and how it works. 

Lightning Network – definition 

LN is a layer two solution. You know it improves scalability and throughput while maintaining full integrity with the blockchain. The Lightning Network is often referred to as an ‘overlay’ or ‘second layer’ of the underlying BTC blockchain. In fact, it acts as a sidechain. It allows users to create payment channels away from the main blockchain. These are known as off-chain transactions

The first transaction using LN was performed on 6 December 2017. Two famous cryptographers specializing in BTC technology, Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja, are behind the idea of this solution. Nowadays, many companies are working on the development of LN. We can include Blocksteam or Aciq, for example. 

The whole ecosystem resembles one big electrical grid with thousands of channels that connect users all over the world. Thanks to this, the network will always find a quick way to transact between users. As more and more people use this way, the network becomes even faster and more expansive. 

The war between small and big blockchainers

The scaling of Bitcoin to handle the transactions of millions of people around the world is also nothing new. If it was discussed very early on, and even mentioned briefly by Satoshi in his white paper, the question only came up again in late 2014.  Increasingly insistent, part of the community is indeed proposing to abolish the preset limit of 1 MB per block, known as the blocksize limit. Years later and by August 2017, there would be a real war within the Bitcoin community. 

Initially, very good-natured discussions about how to scale Bitcoin eventually heated up as the issue became more and more concrete, introducing some to a sense of urgency and that a growing part of the ecosystem was involved. 

The two opposing camps are: on the one hand, the big blockchainers, who want an increase in block size so that the network can accommodate the growing adoption of Bitcoin as a means of payment. This group is not homogeneous, with some wanting only a moderate increase in block size (for example, to 8 MB) as long as the existing infrastructure (bandwidth, hardware, etc.) does not allow it to go beyond that. Others favour a clear initial growth followed by a limited but regular increase in block size until a certain threshold is reached. One thing everyone agrees on is that growth is needed for Bitcoin’s increasing adoption. 

On the other hand, small blockchain players oppose such growth for various motives. 

Here are the three main reasons: 

Increasing the block size by changing the block size requires a hard fork.  However, the latter are seen as dangerous because they are a source of instability. 

Increasing the block size too many harms the decentralization of the network, as it no longer allows a full Bitcoin node to run on ‘low-end’ hardware such as, for example, a Raspberry Pi or an old personal computer. 

Making block sizes infinitely larger to prevent them from filling up hurts the long-term security of Bitcoin. Because it relies increasingly on transaction costs, as block grants shrink from half to half. 

How it works 

The entire network is based on smart contracts. They create off-chain payment channels between users. The channels are responsible for recording transfers. They open directly between the seller and the buyer. That is, when one user sends a payment and the other accepts it, then a channel is created. This makes the whole process much faster and easier, especially in terms of technology. Importantly, the channel thus created has its own block where transactions are recorded. The channels remain open until one of the users decides not to withdraw Bitcoin. At that point, the transaction is completed, and the entire payment is recorded as a single transaction on the main BTC blockchain. Such a process allows for faster approval of larger transactions. If the entire process used the standard BTC blockchain network,  everything would be longer and definitely more expensive. So what is the benefit of this? By using LN, we avoid network fees. We only pay for the opening and closing of the resulting channel. 

The fact that Lightning Network payments are made in real-time is also crucial. We do not have to wait for network confirmation. However, the entire system has a few drawbacks. The first is the maximum amount of BTC we can transfer-it is 0.167 BTC.  Another is the difficulty of layer two transfers. There are only a few wallets that allow them. 

LN’s impact on Bitcoin

The resolution of tier two has definitely accelerated the adoption of Bitcoin. It solved many of the significant problems that the cryptocurrency initially had: 

∙ LN has reduced the price of transactions to a minimum. 

∙ It accelerated network bandwidth to as much as 10,000 TPS. 

∙ It reduced transaction times to just a few seconds.

∙ LN has expanded the functionality of the network’s smart contracts. 

Despite the complexity of Layer 2 transfers, LN users are increasing every year. In 2019, there were just over 2,000 nodes. In 2022, we are already talking about tens of thousands. What’s more, the number of companies using Lightning Network solutions is also growing. 


Layer 2 solutions, not just Lightning Network solutions, scale the network. From today’s lesson, you already know what LN is and how it works. If something is unclear to you, or you need an addendum, take a peek at our previous lesson, where we discuss in detail how Layer 2 works


∙ As of March 2022, 80 million people have used the LN. These are figures from a report by Arcane Research

∙ Many BTC users do not even realize they are using it. All because of the apps they use to perform transactions. 

∙ We are talking about millions. According to the report, the number is steadily growing. 

∙ The greatest interest in LN is recorded in El Salvador, where BTC is a full-fledged means of payment. 

∙ The most popular wallets that support LN transfers include Wallet of Satoshi, Blue Wallet, Electrum, Muun, Phoenix, Breez, Eclair.

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