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  1. 1. What are these cryptocurrencies?
  2. 2. Bitcoin - the story of a technological revolution
  3. 3. Satoshi Nakamoto, who is the creator of Bitcoin?
  4. 4. Vitaly Buterin – the creator of Ethereum
  5. 5. What is blockchain, and how does it work?
  6. 6. What is an NFT token?
  7. 7. What is money?
  8. 8. Cryptocurrencies vs fiat money, which will win?
  9. 9. What is DeFi (Decentralized Finance)?
  10. 10. DeFi: opportunities, advantages and disadvantages of decentralized finance
  11. 11. What is an altcoin?
  12. 12. Stablecoins - What are they?
  13. 13. Cryptocurrency wallet - what is it?
  14. 14. Why do we talk about bull and bear markets?
  15. 15. Security in the crypto market - what rules are worth following?
  16. 16. What is the seed phrase in cryptocurrencies?
  17. 17. Dogecoin and memecoin - what are they?
  18. 18. What is a Ponzi scheme?
  19. 19. What is a Soft and Hard Fork?
  20. 20. Blockchain - examples of use
  21. 21. Is blockchain safe?
  22. 22. What are the types of blockchain networks?
  23. 23. What is blockchain network congestion, and how does it work?
  24. 24. Cryptocurrency wallets: Hot Wallet vs. Cold Wallet - key differences!
  25. 25. Cryptocurrency wallet diversification
  26. 26. Halving Bitcoin - what is it, and how does it affect the price?
  27. 27. Blockchain versus databases: key differences!
  28. 28. How do you transfer cryptocurrencies?
  29. 29. The most important cryptocurrency acronyms/slang you need to know!
  30. 30. The memecoin story: madness or great investment?
  31. 31. What is Ethereum? 
  32. 32. Everything you need to know about gas fees in Ethereum!
  33. 33. Gavin Wood: Blockchain Visionary and Co-Founder of Ethereum
  34. 34. Decentralized Apps – what are they?
  35. 35. What is Proof of Work (PoW) and what is Proof of Stake (PoS)?
  36. 36. What is the Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism?
  37. 37. What is Proof of Burn (PoB)?
  38. 38. What is a whitepaper? What is its purpose, and how do you write it?
  39. 39. Smart Contracts - what are they?
  40. 40. Know your customer (KYC) and Anti-money laundering (AML) what are they in the cryptocurrency industry?
  41. 41. Blockchain and NFT games - how to make money on them?
  42. 42. Liquidity in the cryptocurrency market
  43. 43. Inflation and its effects on financial markets
  44. 44. What is stagflation and why does it have a negative impact on the market?
  45. 45. What are utility tokens and what use do they have in the cryptocurrency sector?
  46. 46. What is cryptocurrency mining?
  47. 47. What is the mining difficulty?
  48. 48. What is compound interest, and how does it work?
  49. 49. What Are Privacy Coins and Are They Legal?
  50. 50. What is CBDC - central bank digital money?
  51. 51. What is Cryptocurrency Airdrop all about?
  52. 52. Key differences between ICO, IEO and STO
  53. 53. What are decentralized DAO organizations, and how do they work? What are DAO tokens?
  54. 54. What is EURT? How does it work?
  55. 55. What is the difference between Circulating Supply and Total Supply?
  56. 56. Snapshot from the world of cryptocurrencies - what is it?
  57. 57. What is the Fear and Greed index for cryptocurrencies?
  58. 58. APR versus APY: what is the difference?
  59. 59. What is an Initial Farming Offer (IFO)?
  60. 60. What is Regenerative Finance (ReFi)?
  61. 61. Who Is Craig Wright, the Alleged Creator of Bitcoin?
  62. 62. What Is Bitcoin (BTC.D) Dominance?
  63. 63. Michael Saylor, Self-Proclaimed Bitcoin Maximalist
  64. 64. Bitcoin Pizza Day
  65. 65. AI blockchain - a new look into the future?
  66. 66. What is WorldCoin? Everything you need to know about this cryptocurrency!
  67. 67. Azuki NFT collection guide: everything you need to know about it!
  68. 68. The 10 most expensive non-fungible tokens (NFTs) ever!
  69. 69. The Bored Ape Yacht Club (BAYC) - the story of the popular NFT collection!
  70. 70. CyberPunks - the story of the most popular NFT collection in the crypto industry!
  71. 71. NFT Art: The digital art revolution - history and examples!
  72. 72. Who is Changpeng Zhao, CEO of Binance?
  73. 73. Who is Brian Armstrong - CEO of Coinbase?
  74. 74. Who is Galy Gensler and the SEC? How does the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) affect the cryptocurrency market?
  75. 75. Web3's most popular social media platforms! Will they replace the platforms we know?
  76. 76. What is IoT - the Internet of Things?
  77. 77. On-chain analysis in the cryptocurrency world: Everything you need to know about It
  78. 78. Can you pass on your cryptocurrencies after death? How do you pass on a cryptocurrency inheritance?
  79. 79. What is the Howey test? What application does it have in cryptocurrencies?
  80. 80. The use of blockchain technology in the world of sport
Lesson 23 of 80
In Progress

23. What is blockchain network congestion, and how does it work?

Overloading a  blockchain network is nothing more than when the number of transactions on a blockchain exceeds its capacity. The Blockchain, like any ‘normal’ network, has a certain number of transactions that it can handle per second. These are referred to as TPS.

Due to its huge potential to revolutionise certain industries, blockchain technology has grown in popularity in recent years. To fully understand the mechanism of blockchain overload, you need to know how blockchain itself and its components work. We have written about blockchain here: What is blockchain, and how does it work? [BASIC LEVEL].

Before moving on to the topic of today’s article, be sure to remind yourself of the lesson we mentioned.

How does blockchain work, and what does it consist of?

The blockchain ecosystem consists of a number of complex processes. These include block creation, consensus mechanisms or even miners. All to maintain the integrity and functionality of the entire network.

The blockchain is made up of important components that we need to look at before we move on:

Nodes, or individual computers connected to the blockchain network. Each such node stores a copy of the entire chain and participates in the validation and verification of a given transaction.

Consensus. These are mechanisms used by a given blockchain to reach consensus between nodes. The most popular consensus mechanisms include Proof-of-Work (PoW) and Proof-of-Stake (PoS).

Transactions, or the transfer of cryptocurrencies or information on a given blockchain. This is where you will find important details such as the address of the sender, recipient, or transaction amount.

And finally, cryptography, which safeguards the integrity and privacy of transaction data. It uses advanced data encryption algorithms for its operation.

Blockchain network overload – definition

As we mentioned, it is a situation where the network capacity is so low that it cannot process transactions. It causes congestion – transactions are delayed, and fees increase. Overloading the blockchain causes disruption to the entire blockchain ecosystem.

To give you a better understanding of the whole ambush, let’s have a closer look at the problem.

Each blockchain has a specific transaction rate per second (TPS). It refers to the number of transactions that nodes (computers), can process in a given second. If the number of transactions is huge, the blockchain network starts to experience congestion. It is unable to work, i.e., process the transactions in question. The result? We are dealing with network congestion.

Typically, as shown by the numerous studies carried out on this issue, the main cause of network congestion is the increase in the number of users using a given blockchain. However, this has its advantages – such bottlenecks motivate developers to find solutions to improve the performance of a given network. Such solutions include sharding.

Another reason that contributes to network congestion is the limitation of the scalability of a given chain. These are usually design issues.

Causes of blockchain congestion also include delays and poor blockchain throughput. The situation occurs when new blocks are added with procrastination and transactions are not approved in a timely manner. Such situations also affect the overall functioning of a given ecosystem.

Consequences of blockchain network congestion

First and foremost – higher transaction fees The mechanism of supply and demand works just as well in the world of cryptocurrencies as it does in traditional business. The higher the demand for transactions, the fees for them automatically go up. There have been cases where transaction fees have reached as high as USD 200!

Longer waiting times for transaction approval. When the network is congested, you can wait up to an hour for a transaction to be approved. In this situation, the blockchain may ask you to pay an additional fee to speed up the process. Your transaction will then be given execution priority.

Network congestion is strongly linked to the scalability of a given blockchain. It has not been known for a long time that ‘older’ blockchains such as Ethereum have a problem with it. Such networks can process a certain number of transactions per second. Therefore, developers are coming up with all sorts of solutions to fix this issue. “Younger” networks, such as Solana or Polygon, for example, have far greater scalability and rarely experience this type of issue.

How do you deal with network congestion?

There are a number of solutions that can ease the burden on the main chain and speed up the whole process. Here are some of them:

  1. Off-chain solutions. These are, for example, side-chains or payment channels operating outside the main chain. Transactions carried out in this way are faster and have lower fees. They also ease the burden on the main chain and minimise the occurrence of congestion.
  2. Network updates and improvements to existing protocols. We are talking about improved consensus algorithms, sharding, or Layer 2 solutions. Their purpose is to increase the capacity and performance of a given network. At the same time, these upgrades improve protocols, eliminate scalability constraints, and optimise transaction processing.
  3. Increasing the block size. This procedure also allows more transactions to be performed per second. However, it must be borne in mind that a larger block requires more computing resources. The balance between the size of a given block and the performance of the network is crucial to the proper operation of the chain.
  4. Lightening Network (LN). It is a Layer 2 payment protocol. The payment channels of both parties to a transaction connect to each other, enabling secure and simultaneous processing of payments between each other.
  5. EIP (Ethereum Improvement Proposal) Put simply, Ethereum improvement proposals. These are proposals from users of a given network, regarding functions or processes that affect the scaling of a given network.


Solving this problem of network congestion is crucial for the proper operation of the entire blockchain network. Particularly as the blockchain is constantly evolving and gaining new applications.

Getting rid of scalability constraints, optimising transaction processing, and improving the user experience – this is the ongoing work of the developers.

You already know how blockchain network congestion works and what characterises it. From now on, you will effectively deal with network congestion!

Complete today’s lesson!

  1. Examples of the use of blockchain technology [BASIC LEVEL].
  2. Is blockchain secure? [BASIC LEVEL].
  3. What is Proof-of-Work (PoW) and what is Proof-of-Stake (PoS)? [BASIC LEVEL].
  4. How to transfer cryptocurrencies? [BASIC LEVEL].
  5. Second layer – what is it? [INTERMEDIATE LEVEL]
  6. What is the Lightening Network, and how does it work? [INTERMEDIATE LEVEL]